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13 A Review of the Rebound Effect in Energy Effi ciency Programs steve sorrell To achieve reductions in carbon emissions, most governments are seek- ing ways to improve energy effi ciency throughout the economy. It is generally assumed that such improvements will reduce overall energy consumption, at least compared to a scenario in which such improve- ments are not made. However, a range of mechanisms, commonly grouped under the heading of rebound effects, may reduce the size of the energy savings achieved. Indeed, there is some evidence to sug- gest that

benchmark economy to a 7.87 percent, which is similar to the peak value of the energy share during the 1980s, 8.86 percent. 6.5 A rebound in energy use? The previous experiments can be used to assess whether there is an energy “reboundeffect induced by energy innovations. According to Gillingham et al. (2013) , who follow the seminal definition of Jevons (1865) , a “direct reboundeffect exists if a drop in the price of some energy services causes a rise in demand of that service. Gillingham, Rapson, and Wagner (2016) differentiate between innovation induced

. In search of personal household energy budgets and energy reduction options. Energy Policy 34 (18), 3612-3622. 5. Bendes-Jacob, A., Dunietz, D., and Reznikowski, A. (2012). Green Perception, Social Types and Valuable Attitudes Towards Environmental Commitment in Israel, Henrietta Sold Institute (Hebrew). 6. Berkhout, P.H.G., Muskens, J.C.W., Velthuijsen, J. (2000): Defining the rebound effect. Energy Policy 28, 425–432. 7. Bonneville, E. (2006). Demand Side Management for residential and commercial end-users: AERE. 8. Brager, G.S., de Dear, R.J. (2003

, Muehmel, K & Neubauer, A 2011 Addressing the Rebound Effect , a report for the European Commission DG Environment, 26 April 2011. Available from: < >. [3 July 2015]. Missemer, A 2012, ‘William Stanley Jevons The coal question (1865), beyond the rebound effect’, Ecol. Econ. vol. 82, pp. 97–103. Payne, JE 2010, ‛Survey of the international evidence on the causal relationship between energy consumption and growth’, Journal of Economic Studies vol. 37, pp. 53–95. DOI:10.1108/01443581011012261 Werner, P 2014, ‘The rebound effect of

{cases} D\cdot e^{\mu{}\left(x+a\right)} & \left(x\leq{}-a\right), \\ A\cdot \cos{kx} & (\left\vert{}x\right\vert{}\leq{}a), \\ C\cdot{}\sin k\left(x-a+\delta{}'\right) & \left(x\geq{}a\right), \end{cases} \end{align}$$ where the wave function inside the trap was assumed an even function based on the ground state energy. Here, δ′ ≪ 1 because of the large size of the metal ( L ≫ 1) ( i.e ., the rebound effect was neglected). E was assumed a single energy of a specific wave function, which resulted in k = 2 m E / ℏ a n d μ = 2 m ( V − E ) / ℏ , $k=\sqrt{2mE

-Economy Interaction: The Fable of the Elephant and the Rabbit?” in Energy and the Economy, EMF Report 1 of the Energy Modeling Forum (Stanford University). (The elasticity of substitution determines the impact on output.) Saunders, Harry (1992) “The Khazzoom- Brookes Postulate and Neoclassical Growth,” The Energy Journal 13(4): 131-148. (The elasticity of substitution determines the “reboundeffect.) Saunders, Harry (2005) “A Calculator for Energy Consumption Changes Arising from New Technologies,” Topics in Economic Anal- ysis and Policy, 5(1): Article 15. iss1/art15

:// Safarzyńska, L., Bergh, J.C.J.M. van den, 2018, “A higher rebound effect under bounded rationality: Interactions between car mobility and electricity generation”, PII: S0140-9883(18)30224-X; DOI: doi:10.1016/j.eneco.2018.06.006; Reference: ENEECO 4057. Soo-Ho Park, (2016). Can Renewable Energy Replace Nuclear Power In Korea? An Economic Valuation Analysis. Nuclear Engineering and Technology 48 (2016) 559-571. World Health Organisation. (2015). Registered vehicles. Data by country. Romania. Retrieved from World Resources

. Energy efficiency measurement in industrial processes , Energy, 38, 331-345. Goldberg A., Reinaud J., Taylor R.P., 2011. Promotion Systems and Incentives for Adoption of Energy Management Systems in Industry , Institute for Industrial Productivity, . Gómez J.M., Sonnenschein M., Vogel U., Winter A., Rapp B., Giesen N. (Eds.), 2014. Information and communication technology for energy efficiency , BIS-Verlag, Oldenburg, 581-588. Greening L.A., Greene D.L., Difiglio C., 2000. Energy efficiency and consumption – the rebound effect – a survey , Energy


Consumer Disappointment 62 Explaining Changes in Life-Styles: Ideology and Second-Order Volitions 66 5. From Private Concerns into the Public Arena—II 77 Collective Action and the Rebound Effect 77 Why Free Rides Are Spurned 82 6. The Frustrations of Participation in Public Life—I 92 The Poverty of Our Imagination 93 Overcommitment and Addiction 96 7. The Frustrations of Participation in Public Life—II 103 The Underinvolvement of Voting 103 A Historical Digression on the Origins of Universal Suffrage 112 viii CONTENTS 8. Privatization 121 Corruption 123 Public Virtue

] Lin B., Liu, X., Electricity tariff reform and rebound effect of residential electricity consumption in China, Energy, 2013, 59, 240-247 [12] Yang, P., Tang, G., Nehorai A., A game-theoretic approach for optimal time-of-use electricity pricing, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., 2013, 28(2), 884-892 [13] Canbing L., Shengwei T., Yijia C., Yajing X., Yong L., Junxiong L., et al., A new stepwise power tariff model and its application for residential consumers in regulated electricity markets, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., 2013, 28(1), 300-308 [14] Talwariya A., Sharma D., Pandey A