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4. Functioning Social Democracy The social pattern of the five northern countries is marked by superficial diversity and fundamental likeness. The domi- nant note is similarity, founded on a common cultural tradition, based on geographical proximity, and aided by deliberate cooperation. Herein only a few facets of the total culture can be surveyed, but the institutions and techniques described will illustrate the habits of thought and the methods of organization characteristic of the peoples. These peoples are realistic. Their institutions emphasize

Investment Politics in Sweden
View of Leaders from Around the World
Series: Heritage
A Century of Income Security Politics
Political and Religious Roots of European Socialism

1 Dilemmas of Social Democracy The History of Social Democracy Any history of social democracy is inevitably the history of its context. So- cial democracy is a political movement umbilically linked to capitalism and modernity, dependent on these forces for its very existence. Just as it once grappled with questions of industrial modernity, it continues to grapple with the issues and dilemmas posed by (post)industrial modernity. The relationship between social democracy and its surrounding context—the field on which it operates, the parameters that it takes

8 Is Social Democracy Dead? RONALD BEINER We live, we are told unceasingly, in an era of globalization. What globalization means, fundamentally, is the triumph of capitalism. And since this triumph is by definition global rather than local, it is a triumph from which there is no escape. Globalization means that the capacity of all states to determine their own economic and social des- tiny inexorably declines, and decisions about social and economic policy are increasingly dictated by imperatives of transnational markets in a way that is not likely to favour

10 Social Democracy in Australia JOHN BANNON As the twentieth century ends, nearly one hundred years after the establishment of the Commonwealth of Australia, social democracy in Australia is under siege. Its political standard- bearer, the Labor party, the oldest political party in the nation, and one of the oldest continuously operating social democratic parties in the world, is out of office nationally and in five of the eight states and territories. It is in the process of redefining its goals and philosophy to take account of globalization and the

Chapter Two Social Democracy in Austria Austria exemplifies a successful social democracy whose spectacular economic performance throughout the 1970s is captured by the title of a recent study: “Prosperity amidst Crisis.”1 Against a background of oil shocks and worldwide stagflation, Austria joined the ranks of the richest countries. In 1978 Austria’s per capita income had reached $7,520,* which made it the tenth-richest country in Europe and the sixteenth-richest in the world. During the i97os Austria’s unemploy¬ ment rate hovered around 2 percent, one