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differences in cooperation to a large extent. KEYWORDS: field experiment, cooperation, social disapproval, social preference, competition, Japan, fishing ∗We thank Peter Matthews, John List, and two referees for comments, Kiyoshi Yokoo for research assistance, the National Science Foundation (CAREER 0092953), the British Academy and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science for financial support and the Shinminato Fisheries Cooperatives and the Foundation for Advanced Studies on International Development for logistical support. Contacts:, erika

Religionsgeschichtliche und hermeneutische Betrachtungen über antike Fluchtafeln

Chinese) is important to the Chinese family, and unwed pregnancy has been interpreted all along as affecting the family reputation (22). Therefore, in studying the phenomena of adolescent pregnancy it is necessary to develop a Chinese cultural perspective. The emotions of shame and guilt also play a significant role in constructing a Chinese sense of identity (23). The literature outside Hong Kong indicates that a young pregnant female 's feeling of shame is related to social disapproval, whereas the feeling of guilt is associated with their decisions in

seen between people who believed exercise was socially and religiously unacceptable and those who thought it was supported by the religious teaching [ 5 ] . Furthermore, while apparent motivation to prevent diabetes was high, barriers to prevention included social expectation of “special” foods, the wife’s role as provider of tasty meals versus guardian of family health, and the desire to exercise versus fear of social disapproval. Little is known about the cultural and situational risk factors for T2D in younger South Asians. The aim of this study was to develop an

rules not because they are acting strategically but because they are either ignorant or the rules are unclear. In this model, education and rule rationalization improve compliance. Others suggest that actors break the rules because they benefit from it. Actors are often socialized into rules compliance by their normative environment. Here actors face a moral cost and social disapproval for breaking the rules. Further, this environment also shapes their moral compass in a way that compliance becomes their default strategy. Yet, socialization pressures and moral

had been tested, individuals who had not been tested for HIV demonstrated significantly greater AIDS related stigmas; ascribing greater shame, guilt, and social disapproval to people living with HIV (18). Our study found a relationship between KYS and HIV/AIDS Testing (p = .016) and a relationship between RIU and increased condom use (p = .010). Hence, these two HIV/AIDS advertisements were successful in achieving one of their objectives. A major limitation is interviewer bias regarding the types of people stopped on the street, but addressing the

governed by social exchange norms, like norms of distribution or cooperation, rather than market exchange norms, since the customer can pay any price, including a price of zero. The norm of distribution provides an additional explanation for this behavior in Ultimatum and Dictator game experiments because it motivates people to seek an equal allocation of resources (Elster 1989). Violating these norms may result in distress and social disapproval by other people (Ariely et al. 2009). Previous literature in marketing suggests that customer satisfaction (Homburg et

to challenging received opinion, no family wants to bring up a bad Catholic, Muslim or Communist. There is shame and even peril in dissent, so the child is encouraged to think in an acceptable way and profess the official beliefs. That this achieves high levels of success is evidenced by the difficulty of discussing dissenting opinions in many parts of the world. Even worse in such conditions is that the too persistent questioning of orthodoxy and the expression of dissent meets with social disapproval even before it is actually voiced, and when voiced it risks

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significantly correlated with students’ perception of smoking. In addition, the lower proportion of smokers in women than in men was attributed to the social disapproval of women smokers. Women who smoke were relatively viewed as unacceptable in Indonesia, particularly among Muslim women. The common age of tobacco smoking was 15–17 years old so mostly occurred in the 11th grade of secondary school. Other studies also reported that smoking behavior was initiated at 12–18 years of age [ 29 ], [ 30 ], [ 31 ]. The adolescent period is a critical stage for humans to initiate a

University School of Law Grasmick, H. G., & Green, D. E. (1980). Legal punishment, social disapproval and internalization as inhibitors of illegal behavior. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology , 71 (3), 325–335. Grasmick H. G. Green D. E. 1980 Legal punishment, social disapproval and internalization as inhibitors of illegal behavior Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 71 3 325 335 Heckelman, J. C. (2003). Now more than ever, your vote doesn’t count: A reconsideration. The Independent Review: A Journal of Political Economy , 7 (4), 599–601. Heckelman J. C. 2003