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Poznań Studies in Contemporary Linguistics 50(3), 2014, pp. 309–337 © Faculty of English, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland doi:10.1515/psicl-2014-0018 GRAMMATICALIZATION OF CAUSATIVES AND PASSIVES AND THEIR RECENT DEVELOPMENT INTO STANCE MARKERS IN KOREAN SEONGHA RHEE HYUN JUNG KOO Hankuk University of Foreign Studies Sangmyung University ABSTRACT This paper reports a unique state of affairs of “causatives” and “passives” in Korean. The two grammatical notions have long remained unstable due to


The discourse of broadcast news is shifting toward being more “conversational.” As a consequence, rather than assuming the traditional poker-face style of delivering news on television, news readers as televised personae are becoming more “informal” and “dialogic” in order to better relate to audiences. Eyebrow flashes, as a communicative resource in television news presentation, play an important part in construing the expressiveness of presentation and engaging with audiences. Drawing upon insights from nonverbal communication studies (especially the pragmatics of nonverbal communication) and discourse analysis, this paper explores the pragmatics of eyebrow flashes as a marker of expressivity in news delivery, and the interaction of eyebrow flashes with the verbal context, based on data collected from Chinese broadcast news in English. The analysis shows that eyebrow flashes are widely employed to initiate the theme of the agent in news messages (implicating “I know something”), to emphasize the focus of the news statements (implying “I am thinking now”), and to respond to the attributed statement (indicating “I want to know more”). Therefore, eyebrow flashes function to assist viewers in construing alignment with authors or reporters of news, as well as alignment with audiences. In addition, they serve to distill personal emotion to hybridize the institutional voice of news, thus rendering television news more “watchable” and engaging.

-exist. The implications of this study are that the elastic language warrants a non-discrete approach; we do not have to give up on “problematic” cases in identifying linguistic categories, the principle of elasticity may embrace these intriguing and exciting cases. The conceptualization of elasticity is proba- bly an integral part of any adequate language research. Keywords: I think, elasticity, stance marker, epistemic stance, modality, pragmatic functions Grace Zhang: Curtin University, Australia. E-mail: 1 Introduction I think

DOI 10.1515/jelf-2013-0001   JELF 2013; 2(1): 1 – 23 Patricia Pullin Achieving “comity”: the role of linguistic stance in business English as a lingua franca (BELF) meetings Abstract: (B)ELF research has highlighted the consensual and co-operative na- ture of (B)ELF interaction, i.e., the presence of comity or harmony. This paper aims to explore the role of stance markers in achieving comity within a business context. The study of stance markers has broadened its scope considerably in re- cent years, notably focussing more on spoken interaction in context

discuss fragments, mainly from the Europarl Direct corpus (Cartoni et al. 2013 ; Koehn 2005 , all fragments were originally uttered in English), that present segmentation difficulties. The ep-number (ep-year-month-day) following each fragment refers to the corpus file from which the fragment was retrieved. We focus specifically on fragments with complement structures, sentential adverbs, restrictive relative clauses, and stance markers. Building on a proposal for discourse segmentation by Schilperoord and Verhagen (1998) , we present an approach to segmentation

indicates their pragmatic competence in face-saving strategies (Xiao). Similarly, sentence final particles (e.g., 啊 a, 啦 la, 吧 ba, 嘛 ma, 呀 ya , and 喽 lou ) and epistemic stance makers (e.g., 我觉得 wǒ juéde ‘I feel/think’) typically add an affect or stance by softening tone or emphasizing an utterance. Understanding pragmatic functions of these particles and epistemic stance markers is critical when learners comprehend and perform speech acts (Taguchi, Zhang, & Q. Li) as well as when they engage in virtual communication (Xiao-Desai and Wong). By illustrating learner data

and semi-formal genres with regard to their communicative purposes and what they reveal about their normative discipline-specific conventions. The more specific objectives are the following: To discuss the frequency and keyword significance of the selected stance markers of epistemic modality and negation in each of the two corpora as compared against each other. To discuss the similarities and differences of the uses of negation and epistemic modals as discourse-pragmatic strategies in each of the corpora. To discuss how the previous choices are indexes of


The present article is concerned with the concept of stance and its relationship to face, face work and politeness applied to Latvian spoken discourse. It offers an extensive review of relevant literature on stance and politeness theories, followed by an illustrative analysis of politeness strategies and stance markers found in a radio interview. On this basis, the article argues that stance markers - epistemic, evidential, mirative and hedging devices - may be considered a negative politeness strategy, responding to the speaker’s and hearer’s desire for autonomy. In conclusion, it suggests a hypothesis that could explain differing use of stance markers and politeness strategies by speakers fulfilling varying conversational roles and of various social standing.

Stance moods in spoken English: Evidentiality and affect in British and American conversation* KRISTEN PRECHT Abstract This study presents results from a corpus-based analysis of the expression of attitude, emotion, certainty and doubt (stance) in a large corpus of British and American conversation. Stance marker frequencies were assessed through an automated procedure for identifying stanced lexical items occur- ring in particular grammatical frames. The frequencies were analyzed with a multi-variate statistical procedure known as factor analysis which

the defendant is  in the form of “other­presentation” (that is, it was written by an external – Royalist – recorder) while in one of them it is a “self­presentation” (that is, the trial was recorded by the defendant himself a posteriori). This part of the study focuses on the many markers of evaluation present in these trial texts – unlike in the court proceedings examined in the previous chapters. The analysis of such stance markers assumes a specific relevance insofar as they reveal attitudes, feelings and judgments, thus shaping the representation of the