Photometric surveys at optical, ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths provide ever-growing datasets as major surveys proceed. Colour-colour diagrams are useful tools to identify classes of star and provide large samples. However, combining all photometric measurements of a star into a spectral energy distribution will allow quantitative analyses to be carried out. We demonstrate how to construct and exploit spectral energy distributions and colours for sublumious B (sdB) stars. The aim is to identify cool companions to hot subdwarfs and to determine atmospheric parameters of apparently single sdB stars as well as composite spectrum sdB binaries.We analyse two sdB stars with high-quality photometric data which serve as our benchmarks, the apparently single sdB HD205805 and the sdB + K5 binary PG 0749+658, briefly present preliminary results for the sample of 142 sdB binaries with known orbits, and discuss future prospects from ongoing all-sky optical space- (Gaia) and ground-based (e.g. SkyMapper) as well as NIR surveys.
In the present study we had three main aims. First to study the possibility of reducing the initial model atmosphere data to short analytical polynomials. The second was to use as the depth variable the logarithm of the local gas pressure instead the Rosseland mean. The third aim was to check the applicability of the derived formulae and proposed computation methods to obtain high precision self-consistent results in modeling hot plane-parallel stellar atmospheres. Introducing the dimensionless (reduced) local quantities θ = T/Teff and β = P/P(Teff) it has been shown that for hot convection-free stellar atmospheres the curves log θ versus log β reduce an initial grid of models to simple polynomials and bring forth some general features of the model stellar atmospheres. Even for stellar atmospheres having the convective zones in the deeper atmospheric layers, the outer part of the atmosphere (up to T = Teff and for Teff > 5000 K) can be described in the same manner by curves log θ versus log β as for the hotter stars. Iterative modeling of any hot stellar atmosphere can be started from these formulae (obtained for solar abundances), using rational polynomial ratios for P(Teff), obtaining from these data the needed T versus P dependence. To check suitability of the formulae, the iterative correction of the model stellar atmospheres has been carried out by the traditional Unsöld-Lucy method and by the novel least squares optimization based on Levenberg-Marquardt method, followed by Broyden correction loop. It has been shown that the flux constancy obtained by it is almost 2 dex higher than obtained by the Unsöld-Lucy method. The precision estimators as criteria of the modeling algorithms self-consistency and of the computational precision level have been proposed and used.
We have revisited the ultraviolet and optical spectra of the blue horizontal branch star Feige 86. The new analysis finds the star cooler and more compact than previously determined. The IUE spectrum of Feige 86 holds numerous unidentified spectral lines of heavy metals, indicating efficient atomic diffusion in the atmosphere. Because diffusion plays a key role in the atmospheres of hot subdwarfs as well, it is indispensable to a better understanding of subdwarf pulsations and evolution. Feige 86 looks like an ideal target to confront diffusion theory with observations and test spectroscopic techniques. Therefore, to advance our general understanding of diffusion in stellar atmospheres we urge for new ultraviolet spectroscopy of Feige 86 at the highest possible resolution with HST/STIS.
The main features of the temperature correction methods, suggested and used in modeling of plane-parallel stellar atmospheres, are discussed. The main features of the new method are described. Derivation of the formulae for a version of the Unsöld-Lucy method, used by us in the SMART (Stellar Model Atmospheres and Radiative Transport) software for modeling stellar atmospheres, is presented. The method is based on a correction of the model temperature distribution based on minimizing differences of flux from its accepted constant value and on the requirement of the lack of its gradient, meaning that local source and sink terms of radiation must be equal. The final relative flux constancy obtainable by the method with the SMART code turned out to have the precision of the order of 0.5 %. Some of the rapidly converging iteration steps can be useful before starting the high-precision model correction. The corrections of both the flux value and of its gradient, like in Unsöld-Lucy method, are unavoidably needed to obtain high-precision flux constancy. A new temperature correction method to obtain high-precision flux constancy for plane-parallel LTE model stellar atmospheres is proposed and studied. The non-linear optimization is carried out by the least squares, in which the Levenberg-Marquardt correction method and thereafter additional correction by the Broyden iteration loop were applied. Small finite differences of temperature (δT/T = 10−3) are used in the computations. A single Jacobian step appears to be mostly sufficient to get flux constancy of the order 10−2 %. The dual numbers and their generalization – the dual complex numbers (the duplex numbers) – enable automatically to get the derivatives in the nilpotent part of the dual numbers. A version of the SMART software is in the stage of refactorization to dual and duplex numbers, what enables to get rid of the finite differences, as an additional source of lowering precision of the computed results.
HW Vir systems are rare eclipsing binary systems including a subdwarf B star (sdB) with a faint companion, mostly M-dwarfs. Up to now, 19 HW Vir systems have been published, three of them with substellar companions. We report the spectroscopic as well as photometric observation of the eclipsing sdB binary PTF1 J011339.09+225739.1 (PTF1 J0113) in a close (a=0.722 ± 0.023 R⊙), short period (P = 0.0933731(3)d) orbit. A quantitative spectral analysis of the sdB yields Te.=29280 ± 720 K, log(g)=5.77 ± 0.09 dex, and log(y)=−2.32 ± 0.12. The circular orbital velocity of the sdB of K1=74.2 ± 1.7 km s−1 is derived from the radial velocity curve. Except for the strong reflection effect, no other light contribution of the companion could be detected. The light curves - recorded with ULTRACAM - were analyzed using the Wilson-Devinney code. We find an inclination angle of i=79.88 ± 0.18∘. Because our first attempts to determine q failed, we calculated large grids of synthetic lightcurves for several mass ratios. Because of degeneracy, good solutions for different mass ratios were found - the one at q = 0.24 is consistent with the sdB’s canonical mass (MsdB = 0.47 M⊙). Accordingly, the mass of the companion is M2=0.112 ± 0.003 M⊙. The radii of the two components were also derived: RsdB=0.178 ± 0.006 R⊙ and R2 = 0.158 ± 0.009 R⊙. Thus, the results for the secondary are consistent with an M-dwarf as secondary
We briey describe the characteristics of the 1.2-m telescope of Kourovka Observatory of the Ural Federal University, equipped with a fiber-optic echelle spectrometer, and report the results of spectroscopic studies of several early-type stars (CC Cas, HD37737, HD200775, ADS 2984A) obtained during the first five years of the operation of this instrument.
We present a synthetic spectra study of two new galactic early-type O4 dwarf stars(ALS 19618 and BD+50886) with high signal-to-noise ratio, typically S/N ∼ 300, medium-rosalution R ∼ 2500 optical spectra of O4 dwarfs stars from Galactic O-Stars Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS), The main stellar parameters (Teff, surface gravity, rotational velocity) have been established using non-LTE, line-blanketed, atmospheric models calculated by TLUSTY204 and SYNSPEC49.
The Cyg OB2 stellar association hosts an entire zoo of unique objects, and among them – an enigmatic star Cyg OB2 No. 12 (Schulte 12, MT 304). MT 304 is enigmatic not only due to its highest luminosity (according to various estimates, it is one of the brightest stars in the Galaxy), but also because its reddening is anomalously large, greater than the mean reddening in the association. To explain the nature of anomalous reddening (AV ≃ 10 mag) of MT 304, we carried out spectrophotometric observations of 25 stars located in its vicinity. We mapped interstellar extinction within the 2.5 arcmin radius and found it to increase towards MT 304. According to our results, the two most reddened stars in the association after MT 304 are J203240.35+411420.1 and J203239.90+411436.2, both located about 15 arcsec from it. Interstellar extinction AV towards these stars is about 9 mag. Our results favor the hypothesis of the circumstellar nature of reddening excess. In the second part of the paper we present the results of our modeling of MT 282 (B1 IV) and MT 343 (B1 V), which belong to the older population of the association and have ages greater than 10 Myr.
Baltic Astronomy, vol. 9, 656-657, 2000
THE IMPORTANCE OF ELECTRON-IMPACT
BROADENING IN HOT STAR ATMOSPHERES:
THE CASE OF Zr II AND Zr III LINES
L. C. Popovic, N. Milovanovic and M. S. Dimitrijevic
Astronomical Observatory, Volgina 7, 11000 Belgrade, Yugoslavia
Received September 10, 2000.
K e y words: atomic data - atomic processes - stars: early-type
In the atmospheres of early-type stars the main pressure broadening
mechanism of spectral lines is the electron-impact broadening (Popovic
et al. 1999). Abundance anomalies are present in 10-20% of A- and
Baltic Astronomy, vol. 9, 662-663, 2000
STARK BROADENING OF HEAVY ELEMENT
SPECTRAL LINES IN HOT STARS:
A u l l , C o l l , T i l l AND C o l l i
D. Tankosic, L. C. Popovic and M. S. Dimitr i jevic
Astronomical Observatory, Volgina 7, 11000 Belgrade, Yugoslavia
Received October 3, 1994.
Key words: atomic processes - line profiles - stars: early-type
Spectral lines of heavy elements are present in hot star spectra, e.g.
in the spectra of CP stars. Moreover, in hot star atmospheres, the
Stark broadening is the main pressure broadening mechanism (Dimitri