Modern spectrophotometric atlases are burdened with significant systematic errors. In particular, the problems of spectrum calibration in the ultraviolet region are not solved; different parts of the spectrum are not thoroughly fit to each other; spectra of (even bright) stars, obtained by different authors, display large discrepancies. Here we discuss a possibility to construct a new atlas of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for a large set of stars by comparison of empirical stellar spectra in dozens of modern spectrophotometric atlases, as well as the comparison of synthetic and observed color indices in different multicolor photometric systems. In this way we suppose to exclude most of systematic errors and construct a new three-dimensional (spectral class, luminosity class, metallicity) atlas of empirical stellar spectra for several thousand stars. After exclusion of interstellar reddenings, a semi-empirical atlas of average SEDs can be constructed for about 150–200 spectral subtypes. This would allow us to make calibrations of spectrophotometric and photometric parameters in terms of spectral types and physical parameters (Teff, log g, [m/H]) and to verify the accuracy of model stellar atmospheres.
Some selected catalogs of the effective temperatures (Teff) for F, G and K stars are analyzed. By an improved technique we estimate the external errors of these catalogs from data intercomparisons. The Teff values are then averaged with the appropriate weights to produce a mean homogeneous catalog based on the selected data. This catalog, containing 800 stars, is compared with some other independent catalogs for estimating their external errors. The data may be used as a source of reliable homogeneous values of Teff , together with their errors.
Developing methods for analyzing and extracting information from modern sky surveys is a challenging task in astrophysical studies. We study possibilities of parameterizing stars and interstellar medium from multicolor photometry performed in three modern photometric surveys: GALEX, SDSS, and 2MASS. For this purpose, we have developed a method to estimate stellar radius from effective temperature and gravity with the help of evolutionary tracks and model stellar atmospheres. In accordance with the evolution rate at every point of the evolutionary track, star formation rate, and initial mass function, a weight is assigned to the resulting value of radius that allows us to estimate the radius more accurately. The method is verified for the most populated areas of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram: main-sequence stars and red giants, and it was found to be rather precise (for main-sequence stars, the average relative error of radius and its standard deviation are 0.03% and 3.87%, respectively).
Using the GR model, we analyze the UV Mg II resonance lines in the spectra of 20 Be stars of different spectral subtypes, in order to detect the presence of satellite or discrete absorption components. The values of some physical parameters – rotational, radial and random velocities, as well as the FWHM and the absorbed energy, as a function of the effective temperature for the studied stars are determined.
Methods used for the quantitative classification of metal-deficient stars in the Vilnius photometric system are reviewed. We present a new calibration of absolute magnitudes for dwarfs and subdwarfs, based on Hipparcos parallaxes. The new classification scheme is applied to a sample of Population II visual binaries.
We present a new calibration of the seven-color Vilnius system in terms of [Fe/H], applicable to F–M stars in the metallicity range −2.8 ≤[Fe/H]≤ +0.5. We employ a purely empirical approach, based on ~1000 calibrating stars with high-resolution spectroscopic abundance determinations. It is shown that the color index P–Y is the best choice for a most accurate and sensitive abundance indicator for both dwarf and giant stars. Using it, [Fe/H] values can be determined with an accuracy of ±0.12 dex for stars of solar and mildly subsolar metallicity and ±0.17 dex for stars with [Fe/H] < −1. The new calibration is a significant improvement over the previous one used to date.
We present the results of eight-color CCD photometry of 674 stars in the direction of the open cluster Tombaugh 5 in Camelopardalis. The stars are observed in the Vilnius system supplemented by the broad-band I filter; the field is of 22’ diameter, the limiting magnitude is V =17.7 mag. The catalog contains the coordinates, V magnitudes, seven color indices, two-dimensional spectral types determined from photometric parameters, interstellar extinctions and distances. The color-magnitude diagram plotted for 480 individually dereddened stars is used to identify cluster members and to determine the distance (1.74 kpc) and age (200-250 Myr) of the cluster. The faintest cluster stars classified are of spectral class G0. The cluster contains two blue stragglers of spectral classes B2-B4, both of them seem to be visual binaries. The extinction AV for the cluster stars is non-uniform, being spread between 2 and 3 mag, with a mean value of 2.42 mag. The extinction vs. distance dependence can be modeled by the Parenago exponential curve with two dust concentrations in the Camelopardalis dark clouds at about 150 pc and the Cam OB1 association clouds at 0.9-1.0 kpc.
In the framework of the Virtual Observatory, the newly developed service TheoSSA provides access to theoretical stellar spectral energy distributions. In a pilot phase, this service is based on the well-established Tübingen NLTE Model-Atmosphere Package for hot, compact stars. We demonstrate its present capabilities and future extensions.
Symbiotic binaries consist of a few sources of radiation contributing to spectral energy distribution (SED) from hard X-rays to radio wavelengths. To identify the basic physical processes forming the observed spectrum, we have to disentangle the composite SED into its individual components of radiation, i.e., to determine their physical parameters. Spectral disentangling of different objects at different stages of activity allows us to understand the mechanism of their outbursts. In this contribution I demonstrate the method of multiwave-length modeling SEDs on the example of two classical symbiotic stars, AG Dra and Z And.
The Whole Earth Telescope (WET) saw first light in 1988. It was invented by scientists from the Astronomy Department, University of Texas at Austin. The idea was to generate a world-wide network of cooperating astronomical observatories to obtain uninterrupted time-series measurements of some variable stars. The technological goal was to resolve the multi-periodic oscillations in these objects into their individual components; the scientific goal was to construct accurate theoretical models of the target objects, constrained by their observed behavior, from which fundamental astrophysical parameters could be derived. This approach has been extremely successful, and has placed stellar seismology at the forefront of stellar astrophysics. The network is run as a single astronomical instrument with many operators, and the collaboration includes scientists from all continents on our planet, taking part in the observations, data reduction, analysis and theoretical interpretation. The expertise of Lithuanian astronomers in photometry, and their access to the observing station Mt. Maidanak in Uzbekistan, has been important for the success of the network.