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have been illustrated with a few selected examples (Jarosławiec area, Oksywie area, Przekop Wisły area). They indicate that bottom survey options are currently of comparable accuracy to those obtained from respective surveys of land areas ( Fig. 1 ). Fig. 1 A comparison of current methods of land (subaerial) and bottom (subaqueous) surveys (DTM – Digital Terrain Model, LiDaR – Light Detection and Ranging, GPR – Ground Penetration Radar, MBES – Multi-beam Echo Sounder, SSS – Side Scan Sonar, SES – Sediment Echo Sounder, AUV – Autonomous Underwater Vehicles, ROV

. (Eds): Zlodowacenie warty w Polsce [Warthanian in Poland]. UMCS Press, Lublin, 71–86. Harvey, A.M., Silva, P.G., Mather, A.E., Goy, J.L., Stokes, M. & Zazo, C., 1999. The impact of Quaternary sea-level and climatic changes on coastal alluvial fans in the Cabo de Gate ranges, southeast Spain. Geomorphology 28, 1–22. Hornung, J.J., Asprion, U. & Winsemann, J. 2007. Jet-ef-flux deposits of a subaqueous ice-contact fan, glacial Lake Rinteln, northwestern Germany. Sedimentary Geology 193, 167–192. Kasprzak L. & Kozarski S., 1985. Litostratygraficzne podstawy subfazy

record of a large-scale explosive eruption in the Vanuatu Arc: ∼1 Ma Efate Pumice Formation. in: White J.D.L., Smellie J.L., Clague D.A. (Eds.) Explosive subaqueous volcanism, American Geophysical Union, Washington D.C., 2003, 273–283 [21] Bath A.H., Burgess W.G., Carney J.N., The chemistry and hydrology of thermal springs on Efate, Vanuatu, SW Pacific. Geothermics, 1986, 15, 277–294 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0375-6505(86)90105-7 [22] Carney J.N., Efate geothermal project, Phase 1. Geology and reconnaissance hydrology. Report of the institute of Geological Sciences

: Doyle L. J. & Pilkey O. H. (Eds.): Geology of continental slopes. Soc. Econ. Paleontol. Mineral., Spec. Publ . 27, 307-326. Kovačić M. & Grizelj A. 2006: Provenance of the Upper Miocene clastic material in the southwestern part of the Pannonian Basin. Geol. Carpathica 57, 6, 495-510. Laughton A. S. 1968: New evidence of erosion on the deep ocean floor. Deep-Sea Research 15, 21-29. Lowe D. R. 1976: Subaqueous liquefied and fluidized sediment flows and their deposits. Sedimentology 23, 285-308. Lowe D. R. 1979: Sediment gravity flows: their classification and

Abstract

The Mahu Depression is an important hydrocarbon-bearing foreland sag located at the northwestern margin of the Junggar Basin, China. On the northern slope of the depression, large coarse-grained proximal fan-delta depositional systems developed in the Lower Triassic Baikouquan Formation (T1b). Some lithologic hydrocarbon reservoirs have been found in the conglomerates of the formation since recent years. However, the rapid vertical and horizontal lithology variations make it is difficult to divide the base-level cycle of the formation using the conventional methods. Spectral analysis technologies, such as Integrated Prediction Error Filter Analysis (INPEFA), provide another effective way to overcome this difficultly. In this paper, processed by INPEFA, conventional resistivity logs are utilized to study the base-level cycle of the fan-delta depositional systems. The negative trend of the INPEFA curve indicates the base-level fall semi-cycles, adversely, positive trend suggests the rise semi-cycles. Base-level cycles of Baikouquan Formation are divided in single and correlation wells. One long-term base-level rise semi-cycle, including three medium-term base-level cycles, is identified overall the Baikouquan Formation. The medium-term base-level cycles are characterized as rise semi-cycles mainly in the fan-delta plain, symmetric cycles in the fan-delta front and fall semi-cycles mainly in the pro-fan-delta. The short-term base-level rise semi-cycles most developed in the braided channels, sub-aqueous distributary channels and sheet sands. While, the interdistributary bays and pro-fan-delta mud indicate short-term base-level fall semi-cycles. Finally, based on the method of INPEFA, sequence filling model of Baikouquan formation is established.

boulder massive bedding medium to big spots, no obvious characteristic braided channel IL3 granule to coarse-pebble cross bedding, parallel bedding small to medium spots; spots in sine waves, light straight lines braided channel, subaqueous distributary channel IL4 granule to coarse-pebble massive bedding small to medium spots, no obvious characteristic subaerial debris flow, braided channel, subaqueous distributary channel IL5 fine to very-coarse sand cross bedding, parallel bedding yellow-light color; sine waves, light straight lines braided channel, subaqueous

changes of vertical gradient in water temperature are insignificant (3.2–4.4°C) ( Kozhova & Izmest’eva 1998 ), however, in the area around localized hydrothermal vents, temperatures increase significantly causing anomalous subaqueous environment in Frolikha Bay. We studied biota of a hydrothermal vent in Lake Baikal. A subaqueous seepage with water temperature up to 16°C discovered in the early 1980s during the first deep-water dives, conducted by a manned submersible ”Pisces” ( Golubev 1979 , 1984 ) and later by automated towed vehicles equipped with video cameras

-dimensional dunes: Implications for sediment transport and bedform stability. Sedimentology, 42, 491-513. Carling, P.A., 1999. Subaqueous gravel dunes. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 69, 534-545. Carling, P.A., Richardson, K., Ikeda, H., 2005. A flume experiment on the development of subaqueous fine gravel dunes from a lower stage plane bed. Journal of Geophysical research: Earth Surface, 110, F04S05. DOI: 10.1029/2004JF000205. Dey, S., 2014. Fluvial Hydrodynamics: Hydrodynamic and Sediment Transport Phenomena. Springer-Verlag. Berlin. Fazlollahi, A., Afzalimehr, H., Sui, J

: A nonlinear model for the fluidization of marine mud by waves, J. Geophys. Res. 98 (1993) 7039-7047. [7] Mei CC, Liu KF: A Bingham-plastic model for a muddy seabed underlong waves, J. Geophys. Res. 92 (1987) 14581-14594. [8] Van Kessel T, Kranenburg C: Wave-induced liquefaction and flow of subaqueous mud layers, Coastal Engineering 34 (1998) 109-127. [9] Silva Jacinto R, Le Hir P: Response of stratified muddy beds to water waves, in Coastal and estuarine fine sediments processes, WH Mac Anally and AJ Mehta (Editors), Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam (2001