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1 Introduction Main Clause Phenomena (MCP) is a cover term for a range of linguistic phenomena that are associated with main clauses, but have been found to repeatedly occur also in subordinate clauses (henceforth subclauses) ( Hooper and Thompson 1973 ; Green 1976 ; Aelbrecht et  al. 2012 ). In their seminal 1973 article, Hooper and Thompson enumerate a range of such phenomena for English, e. g., Negative Constituent Preposing (e. g., Never in my life have I seen such a crowd ) and Left Dislocation (e. g., This book, it has the recipe in it ). In most

would lei l'avrebbe capito have understood him 62. SUBORDINATE CLAUSES In Italian, as in English, subordinate clauses may be implicit or explicit. A subordinate clause is called explicit if it is joined to the main clause by a conjunction, and has an inflected verb form for its predicate; it is called implicit if its predicate is an infinitive or a participle. Explicit Implicit She is glad that you are here He wants me to speak In English, implicit constructions are rather common; in Italian, subordinate clauses are implicit if the subject of the

Chapter 8 Subordinate clauses 8.1. Introduction In Unua, the form of a subordinate complement clause or of an adverbial clause is in essence non-distinct from the form of a main clause. As in main clauses, subjects in these kinds of subordinate clauses may be overt or non- overt and the subordinate verb prefixes are not distinct from those which occur on main clause verbs. In relative clauses, however, Realis verbs can bear the special m ‘REL’ marker in combination with subject-agreement prefixal morphology (see sections 4.4 and 5

Chapter 16 Subordinate clauses It was shown in Section 9.5 that there is a major division in clause types in Lavukaleve, between independent (main) and dependent clauses. Dependent clauses themselves are of two types: cosubordinate and subordinate. Cosubordinate clauses are discussed in Chapter 15. Subordinate clauses are discussed in this chapter. Lavukaleve has three types of subordinate clauses: adverbial clauses, purposive clauses and relative clauses. There are three different types of adverbial clauses, all marked by verbal suffixation, and by

Chapter 12 Subordinate clauses 12.1 Introduction A subordinate clause is one that is dependent on the main clause and cannot stand on its own as an independent clause. There are three main types of subordinate clauses which occur cross-linguistically, and these types all oc- cur in Vurës. The different types of subordinate clause vary as to their func- tion within the clause as a whole. There is a major division between subor- dinate clauses that have a core function in the clause and those that are ad- juncts. Complement clauses are not adjuncts, as

Chapter 8 Subordinate clauses 8.0. Introduction This chapter presents a survey of multiclausal constructions in Kambera, in particular subordinating ones. Coordination is not discussed here, though many of the syntactic constructions that link two or more clauses are coordinations in Kambera: as far as I have been able to establish, all Kambera conjunctions are coordinating. Illustrations of coordinate structures can be found in section 3.4.1, 4.2.1, 4.2.2, 4.6.5, and 7.1.1. With subordinating conjunctions lacking in Kambera, clauses are subordinated in other

Chapter 20 Complement subordinate clause This chapter deals only with non-finite complement clauses. Finite complement clauses, and, in particular, direct and indirect speech constructions, are addressed in Chapter 18. On subordinate questions see section 23.1.4. The complement subordinate clause in Udihe is a sentential argument with the syntactic role of the subject (20.1) or the direct object (20.2). The predicate of the non-finite complement clause is expressed by the Infinitive (7.6.3), a participle (7.6.1) or, less frequently, by the Purposive Convert) (7

Chapter 12 Finite subordinate clauses 12.1 Introduct ion In this chapter we turn to a type of subordinate clause which closely resembles normal finite clauses, permitting almost the full range of verb inflections. Subordination is signalled by intonation, tense sequence, and commonly a Complementizing OBLique or LOCative case appearing after all other inflections, usually on all constituents. Unlike non-finite subordinate clauses, finite subordinate clauses do not agree in case with their main-clause head. This clause type shares many properties of the

Chapter 36 Deranked subordinate clauses Toqabaqita has a type of adverbial subordination where the subordinate clause is deranked. The term “deranking” is taken from Stassen (1985), who says that a common characteristic of deranking is “a reduction of the verbal morphology which is normally allowed to predicates” (p. 82, original emphasis). (See also, for example, Croft 2002 and Cristofaro 2003.) In Toqabaqita, such deranking involves absence of a subject-tense/aspect/sequentiality/negation marker. How- ever, if the verb in a deranked clause is transitive

6 Subordinate Clauses Followed by a Copula 6.1 Introduction In the examples discussed in the previous chapter the COP was attached to a noun phrase; consequently, the constituent marked as focus with the COP was a noun phrase or a sub-constituent of the noun phrase. The COP, however, may also be attached to a subordinate clause in Sumerian. A typical example of this construction is ex. (342) below: (342) BM 22867 obv. 2-3 (Fs. Greenfield, p. 614, no. 4) (Lagaš, 21st c.) (P145896) nin-ka-gi-na dumu lu2-dnanna-ka, PC[ninkagina dumu lunannak=ak=ø PC[PN1