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59 Georg Vrachliotis POPPER’S MOSQUITO SWARM: ARCHITECTURE, CYBERNETICS, AND THE OPERATIONALIZATION OF COMPLEXITY “With clouds replacing clocks,” conjectured American architect and architec- tural theoretician Charles Jencks in his Architecture of the Jumping Universe, “a revolution in thinking was under way, that can best be understood by opposing it into the dominant world view, by contrasting the Postmodern sciences of com- plexity with the Modern sciences of simplicity.”1 […] “In the new sciences and architectures the fundamental idea relates to feedback

Abstract

This paper presents the Computing Networks (CNs) framework. CNs are used to generalize neural and swarm architectures. Artificial neural networks, ant colony optimization, particle swarm optimization, and realistic biological models are used as examples of instantiations of CNs. The description of these architectures as CNs allows their comparison. Their differences and similarities allow the identification of properties that enable neural and swarm architectures to perform complex computations and exhibit complex cognitive abilities. In this context, the most relevant characteristics of CNs are the existence multiple dynamical and functional scales. The relationship between multiple dynamical and functional scales with adaptation, cognition (of brains and swarms) and computation is discussed.

Andrea Gleiniger and Georg Vrachliotis EDITORIAL Robert Venturi CONTEXT IN ARCHITECTURAL COMPOSITION EXCERPTS FROM M.F.A. THESIS, PRINCETON UNIVERSITY, 1950 Denise Scott Brown CONTEXT AND COMPLEXITY Andrea Gleiniger “THE DIFFICULT WHOLE,” OR THE (RE)DISCOVERY OF COMPLEXITY IN ARCHITECTURE Georg Vrachliotis POPPER’S MOSQUITO SWARM: ARCHITECTURE, CYBERNETICS, AND THE OPERATIONALIZATION OF COMPLEXITY Kostas Terzidis ALGORITHMIC COMPLEXITY: OUT OF NOWHERE Klaus Mainzer STRATEGIES FOR SHAPING COMPLEXITY IN NATURE, SOCIETY, AND ARCHITECTURE Johann Feichter COMPLEXITY

Fire 238 The Boid King 242 Artif ishial Life 249 Cellular Automata 252 Object Orientation 256 The KISS Principle 261 Simulation and Similarity 266 Massive Attack 269 3. Written in Their Own Medium 273 Self-Propelled Particles 275 Traff ic Rules in Fish Schools 278 Robofish: Empiricism Strikes Back 289 VI. Zootechnologies 297 1. Drone Swarms, or Upside-Down Evolution 299 Fast, Cheap, and Out of Control 302 Swarm Robotics 309 Weapons of Mass Production, or: An Abuse of Consumer Electronics 316 2. Swarming Out 321 3. Swarm Architecture 325 Shaken or Stirred: Do I Look

be democratically motivated, are in fact embedded in rather traditional and hierarchical leadership structures. What lurks behind the term “swarm architecture,” moreover, is not an ephemeral construction concept but rather just a strategy for developing creative ideas in technically networked and flexibly interactive working groups.17 In the f ield of manage- ment, ‘swarms’ are typically invoked as an application that can be made operative and effective within certain structures of control and leadership.18 This proliferation of the use of the swarm concept to

architectural design and urbanism and discusses attempts to conceptually exploit swarming for architectural theory. Finally, it turns towards the research f ield of crowd control where ABM ‘pre-mediates’ human crowd dynamics and turns traditional concepts of ‘the mass’ upside down. Keywords: drone swarms, swarm architecture, agent-based modelling, swarm intelligence, crowd simulation, parametric design Science has done all the easy tasks – the clean simple signals. Now all it can face is the noise; it must stare the messiness of life in the eye.1 In media

collective f igure’s specif ic form of governmentality. It could have spurred an investigation into a discourse dynamic that was adopted nearly simultaneously (and this alone should cause alarm) by choreographers, subversive political groups and grass-roots networkers, military tacticians, economically-minded trend researchers, artists, and engineers – a discourse freighted with concepts (‘smart mobs,’ ‘swarm architecture,’ ‘swarm energy,’ etc.) that have problematized the distinction between swarms and quasi- swarms in the ubiquitous and increasingly

. ———. ‘Swarm Architecture.’ (2006) http://vhpark.hyperbody.nl/images/4/48/ Swarm_Architecture_II.pdf 388 Zootechnologies Oosterhuis, Kas and Lukas Feireiss, eds. Game, Set, and Match II: On Computer Games, Advanced Geometries, and Digital Technologies. Rotterdam: Episode, 2006. Oreskes, Naomi. Science and Technology in the Global Cold War. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2014. Osborn, Jon. ‘Analytical and Digital Photogrammetry.’ In Animal Groups in Three Dimensions: How Species Aggregate, edited by Julia K. Parrish et al., 36–60. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997

. von Neumann, John. “The General and Logical Theory of Automata.” In Papers of John von Neumann on Computing and Computer Theory, edited by William Aspray and Arthur Burks, 491– 31. Pasadena, CA: Tomash, 1986. Originally published in 1948. von Neumann, John, and Oskar Morgenstern. Theory of Games and Economic Behav- ior. Edited by Oskar Morgenstern. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1980. Vrachliotis, Georg. “Popper’s Mosquito Swarm: Architecture, Cybernetics and the Operationalization of Complexity.” European Review 17 (2009): 13. Waldrop, M. Mitchell