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PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF SYRINGIC ACID AGAINST ACETAMINOPHEN-INDUCED HEPATIC DAMAGE IN ALBINO RATS V i n a y a g a m R a m a c h a n d r a n and B o o b a l a n R a j a Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalai nagar-608 002, Tamil Nadu, India ABSTRACT The protective effect of the phenolic compound syringic acid, one of the major benzoic acid derivatives from edible plants and fruits, was evaluated against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Toxicity was induced in adult male albino

O molecule in the apical position. The complex cations and syringate anions consti- tute chains along the b axis in –A–B–A– fashion. The members of the chains are linked by through N–H· · ·O hydrogen bonds. The (en) molecules are responsible for connecting adjacent layers. Key words: Syringic Acid, Ethylenediamine, Copper (II) Complex, Thermal Properties Introduction Major types of natural antioxidants are the pheno- lic acids which are derivatives of benzoic and cinamic acids [1]. There is a definite relationship between the structures of the phenolic acids and

Abstract

Complexes of yttrium(III) and lanthanides(III) with 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic (syringic) acid were obtained as solids with metal to ligand mole ratio of 1: 3. The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction patterns, solubility, and thermal studies. The complexes are sparingly soluble in water and stable at room temperature. Compounds of light lanthanides (from La to Nd) are hydrated and they crystallize in a triclinic system. When heated, they lose water molecules in one step and in the next step they decompose to oxides. Complexes of yttrium and other lanthanides are anhydrous and crystallize in a monoclinic system. They are stable up to 300°C and then decompose to oxides. As the coordination number of lanthanide ions is usually equal to 9 or 8, one can suppose that hydroxy or methoxy groups take part in the coordination of these metal ions.

known compounds ( Figure 1 ): naringenin 3 [ 17 ], shuterin 4 [ 13 ], methylparaben 5 [ 18 ], syringic acid 6 [ 19 ], p -hydroxybenzoic acid 7 [ 20 ], genistein 8 [ 21 ], 5,7,3′,4′,5′-pentahydroxyflavanone 9 [ 22 ], luteolin 10 [ 23 ], dihydroquercetin 11 [ 24 ], aromadendrin 12 [ 25 ], garbanzol 13 [ 26 ], 5,7,3′-trihydroxyflavanone 14 [ 27 ], β-sitosterol 15 [ 28 ], lupeol acetate 16 [ 29 ], taraxerol 17 [ 30 ], and sitosterol glucoside 18 [ 31 ]. Overall there were six flavanonols, two flavanones, two isoflavones, one flavone, two

BIOSYNTHESE DER BENZOESÄURE 781 Zur Biosynthese der Benzoesäure in Gaultheria procuntbens L. II1 Von H a n s G r ise b a c h und K a r l -O tto V ollmer Lehrstuhl für Biochemie der Pflanzen der Universität Freiburg i. Br. * (Z. Naturforschg. 19 b, 781—783 [1964] ; eingegangen am 29. Mai 1964) Further investigations on the biosynthesis of benzoic acids in Gaultheria procumbens L. have shown that besides salicylic acid all the other benzoic acids (gentisinic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, o-pyrocatediuic acid (?), syringic acid and

consortium and a mixed solution of four phenolic acids as a model. Chemical and microbiological analyses were performed in non-irradiated (0 kGy) and irradiated (100 kGy) mixed phenolic acids cultures during incubation time. A preliminary HPLC and GC-MS analysis were performed to detect the major phenolic compounds in cork wastewater samples. Results indicated the presence of gallic, protocatechuic, vanillic and syringic acids in cork boiling water and gallic, protocatechuic and vanillic acids in sediment tank samples. The Total Phenolic content (TP) of mixed phenolic

)-scopoletin, elisin, dictamine, 4-methoxy-2- quinolone, platydesmine, syringaresinol, syringaldehyde, syringic acid and vanillic acid. Their struc- tures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence. The phenolic compounds vanillic acid and syringaldehyde and the furoquinoline alkaloid platydesmine exhibited antifungal ac- tivity against Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the symbiotic fungus of leaf-cutting ants (Atta sexdens rubropilosa). Key words: Pilocarpus grandiflorus, Jaborandi, Imidazole Alkaloid, Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, Atta sexdens rubropilosa

lignin derived compounds were syringaldehyde, syringic acid and sinapaldehyde. The main difference between autoclave and oven treated samples was the appearance of more oxidized extrac- tives for the oven treatment. Keywords: chemical composition; Eucalyptus globulus; extractives; heat treatment; hemicelluloses. Introduction The dimensional stability and durability of wood may be improved by heating. This topic has been investigated intensively during the last years and commercial pro- cesses have been developed, of which the best known are: thermowood in Finland based

through the antioxidant activities including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant capacity assay and the identification of phenolic compounds using the HPLC system. 2 Materials and methods 2.1 Chemicals and equipments Phenolic compounds (gallic acid, syringic acid, catechin, quercetin and kaempferol), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), Folin –Ciocalteu reagent, sodium phosphate, sodium carbonate, formic acid, D-(+)-galactose and glucucronic acid were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (Germany). Sulfuric acid, ammonium

methanolic solution of the 1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and scavenging of the superoxide anion. Assay- guided isolation led to 4-hydroxyacetophenone (1), protocatechuic acid (2), syringic acid (3), patuletin (4), quercetagetin 7-O--d-glucoside (5), patuletin 7-O--d-glucoside (6) and axillarin 7-O--d-glucoside (7) as the free radical scavengers and antioxidant compounds from Tagetes mendocina. On the basis of dry starting material, the total phenolic content of the crude drug was 3.00% with 0.372% of flavonoids. The content of compounds 1Ð7 in the crude