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assessment are reviewed and assessed. A simulation study based on Deming's red bead experiment shows the effects of strategies teachers and schools might adopt to raise their value- added scores without changing their teaching KEYWORDS: growth models, mixed models, quality improvement, teacher accountability, value- added models Author Notes: This research was partially supported by the National Science Foundation under grant DRL-0909630. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author and do not reflect the

Act of 2002, which escalated the role of standardized testing in our public schools PEAK purpose, essentials, agency, knowledge RTTT Race to the Top, a Federal initiative launched in 2009 to hold schools and teachers accountable to NCLB tests STE(A)M science, technology, engineering, (art), math TFA Teach for America, a program that recruits gradu- ates of elite colleges, trains them for five weeks, and deploys them to challenging classrooms What School Could Be

woefully inadequate, considering the scope of the problem. A robust teacher accountability measure was neutered and ultimately abandoned. A 1997 charter school law only led to the creation of 18 schools statewide and two in New Orleans by 2005. One important law, Act 9, was passed in 2003. It allowed the state board of education to take over individual schools after 4 years of being rated “academically unacceptable” and put them in a Recovery School District (RSD). Pre-Katrina this law had limited effect but it became crucial in the aftermath of the storm. Chapter three

teacher unions ready for change, sprung into action to achieve things that they had been waiting and wanting to do for years” (USA Today 2010). RTTT’s focus on teacher accountability has also drawn attention to a number of long-ignored labor issues in education and has had a major impact on the relationship between the Democratic Party and the two major teachers unions. RTTT is empowering new actors and organizations and creating new political alliances. One of the most interesting and effective elements in RTTT’s design was how it selectively empowered institutions

the author conducted with secondary school teachers. Situating his research in the neoliberal context of standardized testing and performance-based teacher accountability measures, he investigated how discourses of caring might serve to prop up the neoliberal agenda. To that end, he posed the following research questions: How does the ethic of care shape teachers’ emotional subjectivities and beliefs? How are these caring emotions instantiated and sustained through the disciplinary technologies of neoliberal accountability regimes? Caring, according to Pereira, is

seems reasonable to hold the last teacher accountable in these cases and we expect that in most applications of value-added modeling this would be the case. The student’s link to this last teacher will have a weight very close to one. Hence, all definitions above do not differentiate simple links and complex links with very high weight. We could have chosen an alternative cutoff for the moderate definition. However, a cutoff of .5 requires the teacher provides the majority of the instruction to a student for a link to be accepted. Our strong and moderate

, resources were re-allocated, and students were also moved in mass to new schools. Many were reluctant to experiment or embark on new methods when there was such insecurity. The new administration main- tains a posture of favoring techno- logy and the use of the World Wide Web. However, it also established a policy of teacher accountability linked to student success on natio- nal standardized test scores. These national tests concentrate on basic skills and not the higher order thin- king skills that the technology- based resource learning models enhance. Thus

. Providing adequate instruction for the students and equipping them with tangible skills was not a priority. Evidence of this was the outdated textbooks that were used; the absence of teacher accountability or requirements that teachers develop lesson plans and attend school district workshops or relevant conferences. These should be basics for any organization claiming to provide educational services. The fact that these areas were overlooked sent the message that “these kids” were not important enough. Eventually, I moved to New York City where I was accepted into an

across languages. We sought to reduce this limitation with the use of an extensive cross- validation process (Banville et al., 2000) and research collaborators fluent in English, Ghanaian dialects, Japanese, or Spanish languages. Conclusion School districts should do more to regularly engage teachers in professional development training focused on teaching students with disabilities in physical education (Chandler & Greene, 1995; Rizzo, 1984). Further, school districts should hold teachers accountable for participating in professional development (Morley et

(presumably of good character) must hold teachers accountable for their sense of excellence and character. A teacher of questionable character should not be offered the gift of being able to influence, direct and guide any child’s life. A teacher of questionable character is one who takes no responsibility for their own teaching and the learning of students. S/he blames the students, their parents, their culture or any other viable scapegoat to rationalize their failure to be committed to relentlessly working on the behalf of children. This can be witnessed in the