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115 Chapter 4 TOTAL WAR ”THE WAR SITUATION HAS DEVELOPED NOT NECESSARILY TO JAPAN’S ADVANTAGE”: TOTAL WAR AS TOTAL LEVELER Japan was once one of the most unequal countries on earth. In 1938, the coun- try’s “1 percent” received 19.9 percent of all reported income before taxes and transfers. Within the next seven years, their share dropped by two-thirds, all the way down to 6.4 percent. More than half of this loss was incurred by the rich- est tenth of that top bracket: their income share collapsed from 9.2 percent to 1.9 percent in the same period, a decline

Arms and economics in the Third Reich

115 Chapter 4 TOTAL WAR ”THE WAR SITUATION HAS DEVELOPED NOT NECESSARILY TO JAPAN’S ADVANTAGE”: TOTAL WAR AS TOTAL LEVELER Japan was once one of the most unequal countries on earth. In 1938, the coun- try’s “1 percent” received 19.9 percent of all reported income before taxes and transfers. Within the next seven years, their share dropped by two-thirds, all the way down to 6.4 percent. More than half of this loss was incurred by the rich- est tenth of that top bracket: their income share collapsed from 9.2 percent to 1.9 percent in the same period, a decline

73 Chapter 3 wAging tOtAl wAr Trench warfare, 1916. Source: bpk, Berlin / Art Resource, NY. 74 Chapter 3 For most soldiers, fighting in the First World War was anything but heroic. On October 29, 1914, Sergeant I. F. Bell of the Gordon Highlanders was admiring his “almost perfect trench” near the Bel- gian town of Ypres “when all hell seemed let loose.” Suddenly the great guns roared and made the earth heave, ears ring, and eyes tear. Then “Germans sprang from everywhere and attacked us,” throwing hand grenades, ducking into craters, cutting through barbed

73 Chapter 3 wAging tOtAl wAr Trench warfare, 1916. Source: bpk, Berlin / Art Resource, NY. 74 Chapter 3 For most soldiers, fighting in the First World War was anything but heroic. On October 29, 1914, Sergeant I. F. Bell of the Gordon Highlanders was admiring his “almost perfect trench” near the Bel- gian town of Ypres “when all hell seemed let loose.” Suddenly the great guns roared and made the earth heave, ears ring, and eyes tear. Then “Germans sprang from everywhere and attacked us,” throwing hand grenades, ducking into craters, cutting through barbed

302 [ Chapter 20 ] Total War Since neither camp seemed able to take the advantage from a military standpoint, the Iraqi regime decided to play a new card to break the stale- mate and convince the mullahs to put an end to the war. By bombing the Ira nian population, it hoped to demoralize and force the Ira nian people to pressure their government into accepting negotiations with Baghdad. Th e Iraqi regime had few scruples about targeting the civilian population since the explosion of a truck bomb in Baghdad on November 27, 1983, had killed about a hundred

’s twentieth­ century state than is generally recognized. Not for the first or last time were pre­ dictions of the death of the nineteenth­ century American govern­ ing system greatly exaggerated. t o t a l w a r World War I was the world’s first total war, meaning that combat­ ant nations had to devote virtually all their resources, military and civilian, to the fight. The scale of the armies, with tens of millions of young men conscripted into battle, had no precedent in Western warfare, nor did the numbers of killed and wounded. War had be­ come industrialized on

bloodshed for very little success. By the year’s end, then, it was clear that Germany was now embroiled 3 TOTAL WAR 49 A DEADLY LEGACY50 in a two-front war – the very scenario that the ‘Schlieffen Plan’ had been designed to avoid.3 To lift the growing gloom, significant changes had to be made to the way in which the country approached the war. In short, greater sacrifices needed to be made at home to support those at the front. Many German Jews not only embraced these demands, but were also at the forefront of these changes, helping to push the country further

- searchers had come to the U.S. in 1941 to try to convince American pharma- ceutical companies that they should mass-produce it, but industry leaders were not persuaded. After Pearl Harbor and Anne Miller’s recovery, however, and with the U.S. government subsidizing the effort, production skyrocket- ed. In the fi rst fi ve months of 1942, companies around the world manufac- tured a total of 400 million units of pure penicillin, enough to treat only a 3 March: Total War M A R C H 77 few hundred patients for a staph or strep infection. By 1945, U.S. pharma- ceutical