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To the East and Back Again

Fiction as Science: Travel Narratives Janice Deledalle-Rhodes Abstract This paper modestly addresses the problem of the distinction often made between "referential" and "non-referential" texts. Any text sets off a process of semiosis in the mind of the reader: the nature of the Object produced depends on that of the reader's Interprétants. The study of the reception of so-called "referential" texts (travel literature, biography, etc.) appears to prove (i) that no text is referential per se, and (ii) that all texts are referential in certain contexts

that it subtly mediates how they experience the world” ( Danesi 2007 : 25). What I shall focus on in this paper is the understanding of the semiotic process by analyzing and interpreting the products of semiosis in a form of interpreting activity for semiotic inquiry. In view of this, I propose the idea of activity-semiotics, namely, thought-activity, based on Peirce’s notion of tripartite semiosis. Thus analyzing and interpreting traveling narratives or narratives of travel as a product of semiosis, I will demonstrate a dialogical semiosis by means of diverse and

� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � Travel Narratives in the Seventeenth Century La Fontaine and Cyrano de Bergerac J u d i t h S r i b n a i Ambulo ergo sum. —Gassendi, in response to Descartes Ambulo ergo sum (I walk therefore I am). This phrase could be used as a maxim by seventeenth- century travelers and storytellers alike and, in a broader sense, it speaks to a certain way of being and existing in the world. In this chapter, I consider what that meant in relation to the production of certain genres of travel writing, what broadly we can call

’t alone. She proved that even a period of right- wing reaction could not coerce each individual into conformity.”4 The Per sis tence of Trans Travel Narratives 31 Dignity, courage, individual triumph: to Feinberg, Jorgensen’s story has an epic quality. Jorgensen also represents the ground zero of transgender history for historian Susan Stryker. In “Christine Jorgensen’s Atom Bomb” (1999), Stryker plays punningly on Jorgensen’s appearance in the atomic age: “Through Jorgensen, the spectacle of transsexuality mushroomed into public consciousness during the early

8 Travelling the Other Way Travel Narratives and Truth Claims Gillian Beer All narratives take the reader or listener on a journey, and many of them tell the story of a journey too. Narratives are organised to move through time, to transport the reader, and to bring us home again, augmented by the experience and by the knowledge we have acquired. This narrative motion is enacted as much in non-fictional accounts, like the many records of nineteenth-century surveying voyages, as it is in the Odyssey, or Gulliver's Travels. The differences begin when we

2 Travel Narratives and Orientalism: Montagu and Montesquieu 'Tis a particular pleasure to me here to read the voyages to the Levant, which are generally so far remov' d from Truth and so full of Absurditys I am very well diverted with 'em. They never fail giving you an Account of the Women, which 'tis certain they never saw, and talking very wisely of the Genius of the Men, into whose Company they are never admitted, and very often de­ scribe Mosques, which they dare not peep into. -Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, The Turkish Embassy Letters (1717- 1 718


Travel narratives are complex accounts that include a significant layer of factual information – related to the geography, history, and/or the culture of a particular place or country – and a more personal layer, comprising the author’s unique perceptions and rendering of the travel experience. In the last thirty years of transition from a communist to a democratic society, the Romanians have been free to travel to any country they choose; however, during the communist period, especially during the 1980s, travelling to Western, capitalist countries, such as France, Great Britain, Canada, or the United States, was rather limited and fraught with complex issues. Still, Romanian travelers during that time managed to visit the United States, on diplomatic- or business-related exchanges, and published interesting travel stories of their experiences there. Therefore, this essay sets out to capture, from a comparative perspective, the impressions and encounters depicted by Radu Enescu in Between Two Oceans (1986), Ion Dinu in Traveler through America (1991) and Viorel Sălăgean in Hello America! (1992), with a view to analyzing how their descriptions and perceptions of two major urban spaces, New York City and San Francisco, reflect the complexity of the American social and cultural landscape in the late 1970s and mid-1980s.

hautie sky” and “The craggie rocke that to the sea, free passage doeth deny.” At the end of the poem, in admitting his own special limitations as an Englishman, Chapter Two Thomas Hacket, Translation, and the Wonders of the New World Travel Narrative 78 Elizabethan Publishing Edward also invokes the wondrous and the strange. “I am not myne,” he writes, “but thine I vowe, thy hests I will obeye, / And serue thee as a seruaunt ought, in pleasyng if I maie: / And sith I haue no fliyng wings, to see thee as I wishe, / Ne finnes to cut the siluer streames, as

M I C H E L D E C E R T E A U Travel Narratives of the French to Brazil: Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries Subject THIS RESEARCH PROJECT is situated at the intersection of history and anthropology. It proposes to analyze a corpus that could be considered as a series over the long term. This research continues work undertaken in history {mentalités and spirituality in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; possession in the seventeenth century; religious thought and practices in the seventeenth century; Leibniz; linguistic policies and theories at the