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function of time. The transformation of CPPs occurs earlier in the blood serum of patients who tend to calcification, and therefore, T50 is a measure of the calcification risk of patients. The aim of this work is to develop a microfluidic chip in which the crystal formation time in patient samples can be measured fast, reliable and inexpensive. To achieve reliable results, the chip needs to be disposable avoiding contamina- tion from a former measurement. Therefore, it has been decided to employ ultrasonic processing to fabricate a chip from polymer. Ultrasonic

of calcium carbonate under our experimental conditions. The order of factor strength on SSA is x 3 (AT)> x 1 (BC)> x 2 (Amp). Maximum SSA values were obtained at the maximum values of the process parameters. Conclusion In this study, we investigated the synthesis of calcium carbonate under ultrasonic process in the presence of the water-soluble biopolymer carboxymethyl inulin (CMI). Box-Behnken experimental design was used to observe the effectiveness of the process parameters on the specific surface area (SSA) of calcium carbonate crystals. The model equation

Abstract

We report on the formation of different carbon nanostructures by ultrasonication of graphite in DMF upon the addition of 3 different small molecules: ferrocene carboxylic acid, dimethylamino methyl-ferrocene, and benzyl aldehyde. Our results confirm that acoustic cavitation in organic solvents generates free radicals which enable or are involved in secondary reactions. During the ultrasonication process, the addition of small molecules induces the formation of different carbon nanostructures mainly depending on the chemical nature of the molecule, as observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Raman spectroscopy analysis confirms that small molecules act as radical scavengers reducing the damage caused by cavitation to graphene sheets producing long nanoribbons, squared sheets, or carbon nanoscrolls. Importantly, this strategy allows the production of different carbon nanostructures in liquid-phase making them readily available for their chemical functionalization or for their incorporation into hybrids materials enabling the development of new advanced biological applications.

Abstract

The nanosized titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized via sol-gel method. The crystalline nature of the synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray powder diffractometry method. The surface morphology and particle size of the nanoparticles were analyzed by high-resolution scanning electron microscopic method. UV-visible spectroscopy was employed to determine its band gap energy value. The different concentrations of nanofluid samples of TiO2 NPs dispersed in ethylene glycol were prepared and mixed thoroughly by ultrasonication process. The value of ultrasonic velocity and density were measured for the different concentrations of TiO2 nanofluids. The acoustical parameters such as adiabatic compressibility, intermolecular free length, and acoustic impedance were calculated from the experimental data. It was observed that ultrasonic velocity showed linearity with particle concentration, and the results were discussed. In addition to the TiO2-ethylene glycol (particle-fluid) interaction studies, a new methodology was proposed to find the thermal conductivity of nanofluids using ultrasonic velocity.

Abstract

This paper aims in assessing the effect of biofuel blend such as butanol, jatropha methyl ester, soya methyl ester and rapeseed methyl ester as an additive for the aviation fuel. In addition to the blends, the nanoparticle TiO2 of 3 % is added to the biofuel. The nanoparticle mixed at the concentration of 300ppm by ultrasonication process. The fuel Jet A, B27T, J27T, S27T and R27T are investigated for combustion and emission characteristics for various throttle settings in micro gas turbine engine. Addition of additives improves the ultimate property of the fuel by reducing the kinematic viscosity. The fuel blend B27T reports 25 % increase in total static thrust and 22 % reduction in thrust specific fuel consumption. From the results it is evident that, all fuel blends showed a significant reduction in emission values owing to high oxygen content. In addition, the thermal efficiency of the B27T and J27T is improved appreciably to 30 % and 10 % higher than Jet A fuel owing to the influence of the nanoparticle TiO2. On the other hand, the emissions like CO and NOx reduced drastically up to 70 % and 45 % respectively.

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(1994). 11. ASTM. G32-10 Standard Test Method for Cavitation Erosion Using Vibratory Apparatus, 2010. 12. Ultrasonics H., UP200s/UP400S Instruction manual Ultrasonic processors for Laboratories. 13. Dugan G., The Versatile PAC Polymer. National Driller, 30(1) (2009), 60-72. 14. El-Lateef H.M., Abbasov V.M., Aliyeva L.I., Ismayilov T.A., Some surfactants based on the vegetable oils as CO2 corrosion Inhibitors for mild steel in oilfield formation water. International Journal of Corrosion Scale Inhibition, 4(2) (2015), 162-175. 15. Brujan E.A., Cavitation bubble dynamics

). 6. UP200s/UP400S Instruction Manual Ultrasonic Processors for Laboratories, Hielsher Ultrasound Technology. 7. Brine LIN N., XIE F., ZHOU J., WU X., TIAN W., Corrosion behaviours of p110 steel and chromium coating in co2-saturated simulated oilfield, Journal of Wuhan University of Technology- Mater. Sci. Ed. 4 (2011), 191-197. 8. Belzona Instruction for Use 2141 Acr-fluid elastomer FN10051. 9. Belzona Instruction for Use 1321 Ceramic S-metal FN10025. 10. Belzona Instruction for Use 5831 St-barrier FN10102. 11. ASTM Designation. Annual Book of ASTM standards, G32