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the similarities and differences in the treatment of these ad- verbs in all five dictionaries. As is evident from the results, less than half the adverbs are included as entries, the others being undefined run-ons. The latter are hidden within the microstructure and consequently more difficult to spot, which means that the dictionary user must either be trained in dictionary use or retrieve this information from the front matter of the dictionary s/he is using. KEYWORDS: Monolingual learner’s dictionaries; adverbs; undefined run-ons; entries. 1

undefined run-ons in the derivatives section, 10 idioms and 2 phrasal verbs. If we take a closer look at the part of speech of the lemmata and undefined run-ons, we find that there are 9 verbs, 57 nouns, 10 adjectives and 3 abbreviations. Macro- and microstructure of mono- and bilingual LSP dictionaries   167 In addition to the 57 nouns mentioned above, three more nouns appear as lemmata, where part of speech is not indicated, i. e., book debt, book gain and book runner. Here, an alternative synonymous term is given, and the user is redirected to the main entry – i

to be functional - thus suggests that there are two or even three kinds of lexical items; defined headwords, defined run-ons/sub-entries and undefined run-ons. If we disregard for the moment idioms because they a r e l i n g u i s t i c a l l y q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m o t h e r l i n g u i s t i c elements, this form of presentation poses a number of problems for the practical lexicographer. Which language reality or language structure does this practice reflect? With a strict m a i n entry policy there is no problem of observing alphabetical

, persuasibility, persuasively, persuasiveness, pertness, pertinently, pertinency, pertina- ciously, pertinaciousness, peruser, perversely, perversity, perverter, perviousness, pestiferously, sandiness, sanguinarily, sanguinariness, sapiently, wakefully, wakeful- ness, wanly, wanness, wanderer, wantonly, wantonness, wardenship. All of them were now given main entry status, which means that they were defined. Among the above derivatives are such that in Ch-A figured as undefined run-ons, for example: boyish- ness, gibingly, giddily, giddiness, macadamisation, Machiavelianism

entries, diversified vocabulary-expanding features, manifold usage notes, and effective and visually appealing illustra- tions ; its particular forte is the well-thought-out and detailed treatment of collocations. Among MED’s weak points are the following : treatment of synonyms and antonyms, coverage of suffixes, treatment of undefined run-ons, and selective provision of pronunciation ; its particular weak point is frustratingly inconsistent cross-referencing. What is actually provided in this dictionary in the way it is provided meets the user’s needs, both decoding

user could gather the meaning of the word from the meanings of its morphemes. In sample 2, the undefined run-ons include the following derivatives: boyishness, ghastliness, gibingly, giddily, giddiness, macadamisation, madly, madness, personification, perspicuously, perspicuous- ness, persuader, persuasibleness, persuasibility, persuasively, persuasiveness, pertly, pertness, pertinently, pertinaciously, peruser, perversely, perverter, pervi- ousness, pestiferously, sanativeness, sanguinarily, sanguinariness, sapiently, wake- fully, wakefulness, wanly, wanness

run-ons. Such commonly confused items would be much better illuminated as main entries, with appropriate information more clearly spelled out. LDAE, LDOCE and OSDAE list as separate main entries different parts of speech of the same etymological item, a practice employed in many non-ESL dictionaries. Thus, the word abstract, in its adjective, noun and verb forms, is listed as abstract1, abstract2, and abstract3 in such works. In spite of whatever lexicographic justification may exist for "separate" entries for these different "words," it is clear that for

) coolness noun (subentry) cool [FASHIONABLE] adj (main entry) cool [GOOD] adj (subentry) This arrangement seems satisfactory until coolant is discovered further down the headword list as a main entry. It may be difficult for users to see why this particular word has been granted main entry status rather than appearing as a subentry under cool [COLD] adj. Thematic learner’s dictionaries do not make extensive use of subentries although they commonly use undefined run-ons for derivatives. An entry such as cook n might, for example, appear in a