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BASIC INCOME STUDIES An International Journal of Basic Income Research Vol. 6, Issue 1 RESEARCH ARTICLE June 2011 Pathways to a Universal Basic Pension in Greece* Manos Matsaganis Athens University of Economics and Business Chrysa Leventi Athens University of Economics and Business Abstract – Although basic pension had failed for years to catch the imagination of policy makers in Greece, the severe crisis raging since November 2009 has caused it to be quickly put on the agenda. In May 2010 the government committed to a harsh austerity programme

BASIC INCOME STUDIES An International Journal of Basic Income Research Vol. 4, Issue 1 RESEARCH ARTICLE April 2009 A Universal Basic Pension for Europe’s Elderly: Options and Pitfalls* Tim Goedemé Fund for Scientific Research – Flanders (FWO), and University of Antwerp Wim Van Lancker University of Antwerp Abstract – In this article we explore the implementation of a European basic pension (BP) scheme as a means of combating financial poverty of Europe's elderly. As earlier contributions already outlined the practical and ethical arguments that

BASIC INCOME STUDIES An International Journal of Basic Income Research Vol. 4, Issue 1 FRONT MATTER April 2009 Content Research Articles “Basic Income or Caretaker Benefits?” Amy L. Wax, University of Pennsylvania Law School “A Universal Basic Income: Theory and Practice in the Israeli Case” Miki Malul, Ben Gurion University John Gal, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem Miriam Greenstein, Taub Center for Social Policy Studies in Israel “A Universal Basic Pension for Europe’s Elderly: Options and Pitfalls” Tim Goedemé, Fund for Scientific Research

BASIC INCOME STUDIES An International Journal of Basic Income Research Vol. 6, Issue 1 FRONT MATTER June 2011 Content Research Articles “The Basic Income Road to Reforming Iran’s Price Subsidies” Hamid Tabatabai, Independent Researcher “Overcoming Dividend Skepticism: Why the World’s Sovereign Wealth Funds Are Not Paying Basic Income Dividends” Angela L. Cummine, University of Oxford “Pathways to a Universal Basic Pension in Greece” Manos Matsaganis, Athens University of Economics and Business Chrysa Leventi, Athens University of Economics and

point of view but may also raise serious constitutional problems. Hence, the scope of tax-financing within a non-universal Bismarckian pension system is typically confined to the realm of non-contributory benefits (even though the definition of “non- contributory benefits” is far from clear-cut). 22 the need for pension reform: a problem-oriented perspective Replacement of the contribution-financed earnings-related pillar by a universal tax-financed basic pension This dilemma could be solved through the introduction of a tax-financed and universal basic pension. In

the other end of the age spectrum, a universal basic pension was al- ready advocated by Thomas Paine (see chapter 4). In the 1930s, at about the same time as Huey Long’s “Share our Wealth” movement, Francis Everett Townsend, a Californian doctor, proposed the introduction of a basic pen- sion for all Americans over sixty, funded by a sales tax. His movement gath- ered ten million members under the banner “Age for Leisure, Youth for Work,” but declined after Roo se velt’s 1935 Social Security Act, which cre- ated a means- tested, old- age assistance program.65

, delivering universalism may demand what De Wispelaere and Noguera (2012) refer to as “sequential implementation”: combining universal child benefi ts, a universal basic pension, an antipoverty transfer, and tax credits progressively. 8 Building Universal Social Policy in the South 241 This gradual, step-by-step process requires some guiding principles. Policymakers must understand the end-point and some of the political levers required to get there. To think about these guiding principles, we introduce the concept of policy architectures, which can be defi

mandatory pillar on a fully funded basis (“premium reserve system”). The key features of the new Swedish pension system can be summarised as follows (Finansdepartement 1998; Ministry of Health and Social Affairs 1998)12: − The new system will be based on lifetime income. Previously, pensions were based on the best 15 years and a full pension was archieved after 30 years of contributions (15/30 rule). − Basic security for those with low or no income-related pensions is provid- ed by a tax-financed guaranteed pension (thereby replacing the universal basic pension, which

prefectures on the main islands of Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu. As permanent residents of Japan, all were required to enrol in the national pension system to which they (or their spouses) made monthly contributions and which entitled them to a universal basic pension granted at age 65 and to government-subsidized healthcare. The Push for Productivity into Old Age When asked about plans for the future, the majority of participants expressed an interest in continuing with their employment for as long as they were 120 Michelle g. ong able. Here I focus on the positive

, although it was established only recently, there have been frequent changes to the provisions of the system and to the tax treatment of both contributions and benefits (Knox 1995). An additional problem is the integration of the various pillars in a rational, equitable, and sustainable way. Specifically, the question of means-tested versus universal basic pension benefits has so far been resolved in Australia in favor of a means test. However, the retirement age of the compulsory superannua- tion has not been aligned with the pension age, nor is it required to take the