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Holzforschung, Vol. 64, pp. 673–679, 2010 • Copyright by Walter de Gruyter • Berlin • New York. DOI 10.1515/HF.2010.071 2010/007 Article in press - uncorrected proof A proposed accelerated field stake test for rapid assessment of wood preservative systems Tor P. Schultz* and Darrel D. Nicholas Forest Products Department/FWRC, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USA *Corresponding author. Forest Products Department/FWRC, Box 9820, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762-9820, USA Phone: q1-662-325-3136 Fax: q1-662-325-8126 E

Holzforschung, Vol. 66, pp. 245–250, 2012 • Copyright by Walter de Gruyter • Berlin • Boston. DOI 10.1515/HF.2011.139 2011/0059 Article in press - uncorrected proof Relative fungal efficacy results from the soil block test with a long incubation period of three commercial copper wood preservatives Tor P. Schultz* and Darrel D. Nicholas Forest Products Laboratory/FWRC, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA *Corresponding author. Forest Products Laboratory/FWRC, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA Phone: q1

Holzforschung, Vol. 62, pp. 270–276, 2008 • Copyright by Walter de Gruyter • Berlin • New York. DOI 10.1515/HF.2008.024 Article in press - uncorrected proof Assessment of biodeterioration for the screening of new wood preservatives: Calculation of stiffness loss in rapid decay testing Simon R. Przewloka1,*, Douglas M. Crawford2, Douglas R. Rammer2, Donald L. Buckner3, Bessie M. Woodward2, Gan Li3 and Darrel D. Nicholas3 1 University of Melbourne, School of Forest and Ecosystem Science, Water Street, Creswick, Victoria 3363, Australia 2 US Department of

water borne copper naphthenate wood preservatives, have the advantage of low volatile organic compound emissions (Shaw 1994; Craciun and Kamdem 1997). While considerable efforts have been put into re- search on interactions between copper-amine preserva- tive systems and wood (Cooper 1998; Zhang and Kam- dem 2000a), much less attention has been focused on identifying Cu(II) species in ammoniacal copper or cop- per amine preservative solutions and to determining the influence of the various forms of copper complexes in solutions on performance of treated wood, such as

biological resistance against fungi and termites with promising results. Combinations of tannin extracts with inorganic biocides were also tested with positive results ( Scalbert et al. 1998 ); Yamaguchi and Okuda 1998 ; Sen et al. 2009 ). The problem is, however, the low leaching resistance (LR) of tannin-containing wood preservatives. Tannins could be fixed in wood by means of in situ polymerization, for example with formaldehyde and hexamine (Pizzi 1994 ; Thevenon et al. 2009 ). Experiments with the addition of boron (<1%) were performed and resulted in boron

Holzforschung, Vol. 58, pp. 446–454, 2004 • Copyright by Walter de Gruyter • Berlin • New York Evaluation of borate formulations as wood preservatives to control subterranean termites in Australia Berhan M. Ahmed1,*, John R.J. French2 and Peter Vinden3 1 Institute of Land and Food Resources, The University of Melbourne and CRC Wood Innovations, Parkville, Australia 2 Faculty of Science, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore DC, Australia 3 CRC Wood Innovations and the University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia *Corresponding author. ILFR, Building

Introduction Wood preservatives based on copper, chromium and arsenic (CCA) are used world-wide to protect wood from wood destroying insects and fungi in most environments. How- ever, due to environmental concerns, the use of these preservatives has been restricted in several countries in recent years. In Sweden, for instance, the use of wood treated with chromium and arsenic based preservatives has been banned in most above ground situations (KemI 1990). As a consequence of restrictions, several chromium and arsenic free preservatives based on fungicides

( Hughes 2004 ), especially for use class 3 according to EN 335-1 (2006). For example, chromate copper arsenate (CCA) was a widely distributed wood protection formulation for more than 30 years all over the world ( Eaton and Hale 1993 ). In 2003, European legislation banned CCA in any application, where the treated wood may pose a risk to human and animal health due to its high mammalian and environmental toxicity. Several alkyl ammonium compounds such as tertiary amine salts and quaternary ammonium compounds are other examples for common wood preservatives ( Pernak et

J. Pernak et al.: Wood Preservatives 249 Holzforschung 52(1998)249-254 New Quaternary Ammonium Chlorides - Wood Preservatives By Juliusz Pernak2, Jadwiga Zabielska-Matejuk1 and Edmund Urbanik1 J Institute of Wood Technology, Poznan, Poland 2 Poznan University of Technology, Poznan, Poland Keywords Wood preservatives Benzylimiclazolium chlorides Amifungal activity QSAR analysis Summary l -Alkyl-3-benzyloxymethylimidazolium, 3-alkoxymethyl-1 -benzylimidazolium, and 1 -alkyl-3-(3-phc- nylpropoxymethyl)imidazolium chlorides were prepared in very good yields by

Holzforschung, Vol. 58, pp. 440–445, 2004 • Copyright by Walter de Gruyter • Berlin • New York Enzymatically polymerized phenolic compounds as wood preservatives Marjaana Rättö1,*, Anne-Christine Ritschkoff2 and Liisa Viikari1 1 VTT Biotechnology, VTT, Espoo, Finland 2 VTT Building and Transport, VTT, Espoo, Finland *Corresponding author. VTT Biotechnology, BOX 1500, FIN-02044 VTT, Espoo, Finland Fax: q358-9-455-2103 E-mail: Abstract Phenolic compounds were studied as natural preserva- tives against wood decaying fungi. Vanillin and