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Word Classes The main features and distribution of each word class is discussed in greater detail in the relevant sections in the grammar. This section contains a brief summary of the Owa word classes. Nouns are an open class of words. Common nouns may be alienable nouns which have no affixation, or inalienable nouns which take the possessive suffix. A very small number of common nouns occur in both forms. Nouns are often pre- ceded by an article. Personal nouns are often preceded by an article marked for gender. Place names are often preceded by the

frequency of constituent words in the proverb context and in general language use influenced how participants performed in a self-paced reading paradigm and in recall tasks. In the present article, it is examined whether word-level properties beyond the frequency dimension are involved in proverb processing. The effect of the syntactic categories of words – that is word classes ( Haspelmath 2012 : 110–111) – in proverbs shall be scrutinized. The proverb context is interesting because proverbs are used to express more or less complex messages succinctly and in an easily

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85 4. WORD CLASSES The following word classes are found in Yuki: nouns, verbs, pronouns, demonstratives, adjectives, adverbs, quantifiers, locative terms, numerals, switch-reference markers, and connectives. There is overlap between some of these word classes. Nouns can be verbalized through the addition of verb morphology and some noun case endings can be added to verbs. Third person pronouns are effectively identical to distal demonstratives91. Unlike adverbs, adjectives can be marked with =(ˀ)a(ˀ). Switch- reference markers can also be understood as a

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Chapter 4 Word classes 4.1. Introduction Vurës has three possibilities for the way in which a root can be assigned to a word class or word classes, as is typical of the majority of languages. One possibility is that a word is a member of one and only one class and can never be a member of a different class, whether underived or derived. An example of such is the word ba ‘but’ which only ever belongs to the class of conjunctions. For the most part only grammatical function words like ba tend not to exhibit variation in class membership in Vurës

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Chapter 3 Word classes According to Schachter, “parts-of-speech classes must be distinguished from one another on the basis of a cluster of properties, none of which by itself can be claimed to be a necessary and sufficient condition for assignment to a particular class” (1985:6, original emphasis). In the following sections, parts of speech in Mav̋ea are identified based on a cluster of properties for each word class. Nouns and pronouns are presented in §3.1, verb types in §3.2, auxiliaries in §3.3, and adjectives and adjectival pred- icates are detailed in §3

Chapter 3 Word classes Word classes are recognised on the grounds of morphological possibilities and syntactic distribution, combined with, in some cases, semantics. There are two large open word classes in Lavukaleve: nouns and verbs. There are also a large number of medium-sized to small closed classes. This chapter contains a justification of the classification of these word classes. More details on each of them are found elsewhere in this work. However some of the smaller classes which are not discussed elsewhere in this work are described more fully

Chapter 4 Word classes The word classes of Mongsen can be divided into open and closed classes, as follows: Open classes 1. Verbs 2. Nouns Closed classes 3. Pronouns: personal, possessive, demonstrative, interrogative, indefinite 4. Nominal modifiers: nominal deictics, quantifiers, case marking clitics 5. Time words 6. Adverbs 7. Discourse connectives 8. Phrasal conjunction 9. Interjections, exclamations and onomatopoeia 10. Particles and clitics These can be differentiated according to formal criteria, commencing with the open word

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4. Word classes The major word classes in South Efate are nominals and verbs . Minor word classes are prepositions, adverbs, and adjectives. The major groups are discussed here briefly and then in more detail in other parts of the current work. The other word classes will be discussed only in this chapter. A note on affixes and clitics : affixes are taken as being able to attach to a single word class only. For example, object suffixes can only attach to verbs and so are not considered to be clitics . Subject proclitics , on the other hand, attach to

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3 Word classes In to my corpus, the descriptive, non-functional vocabulary of Kilmeri comprises about 800 (mono- and polymorphemic) verbs out of which 275 aremonomorphemic; 680 nouns including kind referring terms; 60 adjectives; and 20 lexical, non-derived adverbs. This distribution suggests that nouns and verbs clearly are major word classes of the language, while adverbs rather form a minor word class. Adjectives lie in the middle. They seem to be an open word class like nouns and verbs, but number many fewer items. In Kilmeri, openness of word class should be

Chapter 4 Word classes 4.1. Introduction Only a small number of parts of speech are recognized for Wardaman: Nominals, (finite) Verbs, Verb particles, Adverbs, Interjections, and a small set of "minor classes" which for one reason or another cannot be aptly included within any of the other categories, and require separate mention. The next few chapters are devoted to the formal, distributional, and functional particulars in Wardaman of each word class recognized. Here some introductory remarks are made about each class, and some of the indeterminacies in bounding