The Internet of things (IoT) is one of the most developing and hot topics in engineering and technology, which has massive growth and attracts many researchers, technologists, scientists, entrepreneurs, and start-ups. In IoT, the word thing refers to devices that have inbuilt sensors capable of gathering and transmitting the information in a network automatically without the need of a human being. It can also make decisions as technology is embedded into it, helping it to interact with the internal and external state of surroundings. IoT can connect multiple sensors or devices in a network, helping in communicating and transmitting data and messages with each other using the Internet. It integrated the physical world with the Internet and allows devices to be controlled remotely, creating many opportunities for a direct establishment of a link to the devices. It has entered into many fields, creating a lot of revenue, better lifestyles, ease of doing things, growth in the economy, generating employment, and also improved efficiency and accuracy. It created technologies like smart cities, smart homes, smart grids, and smart transportation, thereby saving everyone’s resources, time, and money. The technology consists of an umbrella of many technologies combined in it. Sensors, microcontrollers, operating systems, networking, security, data mining, machine learning, network protocols, and data communications are needed to support the IoT for successful implementation. Already, the revenue generated by this technology has crossed $40 billion and is increasing. IoT helps maintain the privacy of the people, trust, and security, and indeed much research is still going on to improve these fields in the technology. Many companies adopting IoT have shown more significant progress in terms of generating revenue, innovation, and saving human time. But the technology has to focus more on the secure transmission of data and to develop the standard protocols as there is an urgent need since the network is of heterogeneous objects and technology is continuously evolving.
The Internet of things (IoT) has emerged as a significant and intrinsic constituent of the current wireless sensor networks technology. Consequently, the applications of IoT technology have penetrated various fields that benefit society, such as health-care systems, the education sector, and the media sector. Its application has been identified by users with the aid of various semisupervised and supervised approaches. For instance, IoT has been utilizing Zigbee and Wi-Fi as communication techniques, and the automation of these applications has been enriched using IoT and has helped speed up the socially relevant processes everywhere. It is observed that artificial intelligence (AI) is more and more being applied as the key technology for IoT applications. Another perspective is that IoT technology has improvised the utilities and applications of the digital world and thereby enriched social demands related to knowledge gathering and knowledge communication enabled by various sensors, including video sensors and communication systems, which are essential elements of IoT. Apart from such physical devices, AI also plays a necessary and vital function toward the automation of systems required for IoT application processing. The social IoT world has been expecting a plethora of various kinds of application works in order to enrich communication and automated processing in many fields. However, despite IoT having grown enormously to automate the digital world, there are still some challenges hindering the development of IoT. For instance, the challenges posed by the hacking world are becoming a growing concern regarding the implementation of IoT in the right direction and right uses. Therefore, it is important that the development and implementation of IoT adopts the necessary precautions against these security challenges in order to monitor and safeguard the societal data and knowledge bases. To ensure that implementations and adoption are carried out with authenticity, it is crucial to introduce authentication of data and utilize nanothings to process the authentication and identification, bringing the elements of forensic science. Authenticity and authorization are critical and should always be ensured.
Among the various common buzzwords in this mobile application development, Internet of things (IoT) is the one that attracts various researchers. It could be defined as a system that comprises physical devices, appliances, and vehicles connected so that the information could be collected and gets exchange over the wired or wireless network. This mode of exchange does not require any human involvement. Data transfer and amalgamation of data between the computer and physical devices make human life simple improving productivity and efficiency. From Gartner’s perceptions, around 25 billion devices would be connected by 2020, and these devices facilitate the process of analyzing, prior planning, managing, and making autonomous decisions. IoT is the technology used to construct the system that senses autonomously and sends a response to the corresponding devices based on the need. Hence, a process flow is developed for a specific framework to resolve the issues in IoT. The objective of this chapter is to give a detailed description of the architecture of IoT systems. Various industries contribute to the establishment of IoT through several approaches in a diversified manner. Therefore, a significant focus is required for the architect to be aware of the design elements and hence this chapter exploits the strengths carried out by various industry giants that could contribute much toward the downsizing of the processer. This chapter discusses the challenges that occur during the selection of the appropriate technology stack, tools that shoot from the fact that IoT protocols standardization does not exist virtually. The main reason for this issue is the inhibited milieu of various attributes possessed by IoT such as low power, bandwidth requirement, memory availability, and high packet loss. This chapter covers several standards and protocols to solve the issue. The focus of this chapter explores the evolution from the edge to cloud to fog and back to edge computing and to capture the contemporary thoughts in fog, edge computing, architecture, applications, and technologies.
Today’s technology cannot exist without the Internet support and it always follows some of the objects like sensors, mobile nodes, and actuators for establishing the communication. All these objects covered in a frame that makes human life easy called Internet of things (IoT). Applications are the best medium to interact with the users/server in and around the network. In connecting the application with IoT network, many protocols spend more effort on establishing the successful communication. This chapter discusses the protocols that are involved in developing applications in an IoT network. It starts with the functionality of the transport layer and ends with iCore and OSMOSE protocols. Some other protocols like SCADA, CoAP, MQTT, and open IoT have also been explained. It also discusses the need of those protocols, possible research areas, merits, and demerits.
Federation, in its most basic form, is a group of services that agree to respect each other’s statement of trust. When a user is authenticated in a federated service, every other service in a group will be performed securely. It is the collaboration of several cloud service providers (CSP) to tackle the emerging challenges of cloud computing environments such as load balancing, security, scheduling, and accommodation spikes. The federated cloud associates the local infrastructure providers to a global forum, which enables every stakeholder on-demand self-service. As a service provider, permission is granted to access the resources globally on a remarkable scale. If the end user requires scale-up services on runtime, it just buys the capacity required by the end user from the global marketplace. The meaning of a federated cloud is that the customer can host their applications on the cloud service provider’s platform of choice with proper service-level agreements (SLA). They do not have to rely only on the prominent providers available in the marketplace who are nowadays imposing SLA of their choice and forcing the customer to pay a higher price of their own choice by establishing their monopoly. The advent of both the Internet of things (IoT) and cloud computing are renovating the way of apprehending information technology. IoT cloud is an emerging type of distributed system, that is, consists of a network of sensor-enabled edge devices interconnected with a remote server, such as fog cloud, which provides several infrastructures, software, and platform through the remote network of fog and edge computing which is providing IoT as a Service (IoTaaS). IoT platform mostly focused on collecting data from smart devices through sensors and actuators and analyzes the collected data to get the desired information. According to the requirement of today’s world, the IoT cloud platform must be able to handle the heterogeneity of the data and infrastructure in the dynamic environment. At the same time, it must be secure, robust, and scalable. Automation and smart behavior of the sensors are required to be integrated in the future. The automatic smart responses of the edge devices are required by the CSP to analyze the data on the cloud platform. So, it is required to integrate those IoT networks which are having a limited number of infrastructure and processing speed that can provide secure, scalable, on-demand self-computing, and storage resources. This can be achieved by connecting the IoT network with the cloud network by federating the networks. IoT cloud federation is a lattice of IoT network linked with interconnected CSPs to provide a global disperse network of sensing and actuating environments whereas the functionalities are performed based on protocols in a universal environment. Several medium and large-scale IoT networks are collaborating with CSP in a federated environment to enhance their capabilities like smart sensing and intelligent behavior. Federated IoT CSP are allowing end users to deploy their edge IoT devices on different geographical regions and providing the IoTaaS.
Due to the vast development of information and transmission technologies, Internet of things (IoT) has been emerging as a revolutionary technology in the simulation of real-time data. IoT aims in connecting the real world with the virtual world through the Internet and the World Wide Web that helps in exchanging information without human intervention. In the world, most of the people depend on agriculture. The surge in the world population has demanded the modernization of agriculture to meet the rising demand for food in terms of both quality and quantity. This can be done by integrating IoT with traditional methods in order to increase productivity in the agricultural sector. As scientific groups have been delivering more IoT products in agriculture, it is one of the sectors that have been greatly influenced by the advancement of IoT. In this chapter, a precise review of history, IoT enabling technologies, and various applications of the agriculture sector has been performed. Furthermore, this research provides technocrats, researchers, and common people the basic information on various factors affecting the productivity of farming through the recent findings of IoT in agriculture. Moreover, it also provides an insight into the advancements made in the technology to cope up with the challenges raised in the agriculture domain.