This study examines the use of metaphors, metonymies and metaphorical similes for love in a selective corpus of the most commercially successful US hit songs from 1946 to 2016 according to Billboard year-end charts. The analysis is performed within the framework of Conceptual Metaphor Theory and from quantitative and qualitative perspectives. Our results indicate that the theme of romantic love is prevalent in US mainstream pop music over the course of seven decades but shows evolutionary features. Metaphors of love evolve from conventional to novel with a notable increase in both heartbreak and erotic metaphors. Remarkably, the study finds that the two predominant conceptualizations of love in pop songs – which in a significant number of cases overlap – are the following: one experiential, originating in the physical proximity of the lovers, and one cultural, reflecting possession by one lover and showing a non-egalitarian type of love.
The aim of this paper is to investigate the negative local and temporal constructions formed with todo/a in a preverbal position; specifically, its behavior and origin. It is well known that some prepositional phrases with the quantifier todo/a and a nominal phrase of temporal or local meaning behave as terms of negative polarity in Spanish, but only when they are in a preverbal position and without a negative inductor (en toda la noche cesó de derramar lágrimas). This paper argues that the temporal or local prepositional phrase does not lose its meaning in these cases, but it rather activates the negative value of the structure in which it occurs. Thus, this construction does not function exactly as a negation marker, but as a contextual activator of the negation of the structure where it appears ―that is, as an example of a disguised negation. Among these constructions with todo/a, however, the one formed with the noun vida as a core must be distinguished, since it is in fact grammaticalized as an authentic element of negation.
In the teaching Spanish as a foreing language, one of the most common element that we can find in the classroom is the cultural diversity. In the classroom, the students interact with others of different countries and identity. For this reason, it is necessary to be aware of the linguistic levels of the student but also, about habits and social ideas in the way of interpreting the world. As we think, learning foreign languages must be based mainly on interaction and practice in real communicative contexts, trying to avoid the mechanical repetition of lexicon and grammar without an apparent objective. In the other way, learning languages has to focus on the use of language in the service of interaction and exchange. Both aspects are essential for the construction of the socalled shared knowledge. In this article we will analyse the knowledge shared through gestures during communication in Spanish.
The discourse marker claro is the most widely used marker in colloquial conversations in Spanish. Such frequent use can be explained by analyzing its processing meaning. Claro conveys two main processing instructions: an argumentative instruction, and another related to discourse identity. First, whoever uses claro signals as evident what s/he communicates. In doing so, s/he shows her/his interlocutor that, if required (epistemic vigilance), s/he can justify it with reasons. Second, the meaning of claro determines that this certainty is not only recognized by the speaker, but also, in an imprecise way, by someone else (extended discourse identity). The speaker usually marks with claro what s/he shares with certainty with her/his interlocutor(s), thus creating a group discourse identity. In this way, the speaker and her/his interlocutor constitute or form part of a group that shares as evident a conclusion marked with claro, together with its reasons, either explicit or possible. This discourse behaviour favours good social relations.
The article analyzes the incidence of the sociolectal and discursive factors of linguistic change, specifically in various phenomena related to the relative clauses heades by preposition. The study focuses on the beginning and diffusion of the variant with article en/con el que versus the form without article en/con que between the eighteenth and twentieth centuries; in al cual versus a quien in the relative clauses with human antecedent in the Golden Age; and in the variant al que versus a quien and al cual with human antecedents in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The research follows a variationist methodology based on a corpus of ego-douments. The results show examples of the origin and diffusion of the grammatical changes in the diachronic axis from the categories contributed by the sociolinguistics.