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Abstract

Background

To assess different types of adnexal masses as identified by 3T MRI and to discuss the added value of diffusion techniques compared with conventional sequences.

Patients and methods

174 women age between 13 and 87 underwent an MRI examination of the pelvis for a period of three years. Patients were examined in two radiology departments – 135 of them on 3 Tesla MRI Siemens Verio and 39 on 3 Tesla MRI Philips Ingenia. At least one adnexal mass was diagnosed in 98 patients and they are subject to this study. Some of them were reviewed retrospectively. Data from patients’ history, physical examination and laboratory tests were reviewed as well.

Results

124 ovarian masses in 98 females’ group of average age 47.2 years were detected. Following the MRI criteria, 59.2% of the cases were considered benign, 30.6% malignant and 10.2% borderline. Out of all masses 58.1% were classified as cystic, 12.9% as solid and 29% as mixed. Оf histologically proven tumors 74.4% were benign and 25.6% were malignant. All of the malignant tumors had restricted diffusion. 64 out of all patients underwent contrast enhancement. (34 there were a subject of contraindications). 39 (61%) of the masses showed contrast enhancement.

Conclusions

Classifying adnexal masses is essential for the preoperative management of the patients. 3T MRI protocols, in particular diffusion techniques, increase significantly the accuracy of the diagnostic assessment.

Abstract

Background

Asbestos exposure is associated with the development of pleural plaques as well as malignant mesothelioma (MM). Asbestos fibres activate macrophages, leading to the release of inflammatory mediators including interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β). The expression of IL-1β may be influenced by genetic variability of IL1B gene or regulatory microRNAs (miRNAs). This study investigated the effect of polymorphisms in IL1B and MIR146A genes on the risk of developing pleural plaques and MM.

Subjects and methods

In total, 394 patients with pleural plaques, 277 patients with MM, and 175 healthy control subjects were genotyped for IL1B and MIR146A polymorphisms. Logistic regression was used in statistical analysis.

Results

We found no association between MIR146A and IL1B genotypes, and the risk of pleural plaques. MIR146A rs2910164 was significantly associated with a decreased risk of MM (OR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.13–0.73, p = 0.008). Carriers of two polymorphic alleles had a lower risk of developing MM, even after adjustment for gender and age (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.14–0.85, p = 0.020). Among patients with known asbestos exposure, carriers of at least one polymorphic IL1B rs1143623 allele also had a lower risk of MM in multivariable analysis (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.28–0.92, p = 0.025). The interaction between IL1B rs1143623 and IL1B rs1071676 was significantly associated with an increased risk of MM (p = 0.050).

Conclusions

Our findings suggest that genetic variability of inflammatory mediator IL-1β could contribute to the risk of developing MM, but not pleural plaques.

Abstract

Background

Survival of children with cancer in Eastern and Central Europe is 10–20% lower than in high income European countries. We evaluated outcome of children and adolescents with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) in Slovenia, Croatia, Slovakia and in Romania.

Patients and methods

We retrospectively analysed event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) for all patients treated in Slovenia and Croatia. Slovakia included patients from two centers, representing half of expected cases. Romania included patients from single institution, representing only 10% of expected patients. Joint database for analysis was established.

Results

One hundred seventy-eight children and adolescent with RMS diagnosed from January 2000 to December 2015 were included. Mean patient age at diagnosis was 7.7 years, one third was older than 10 years. Twenty-five percent had alveolar histology and 72% unfavorable location. Higher than expected proportion of patients had nodal involvement (24%) or metastatic disease (27%). All patients received systemic chemotherapy, 57% had radiotherapy and 63% surgery as local control. Kaplan- Meier estimates for 5-year EFS and OS were 50.7% and 59.6%, respectively. Five-year OS for patients with localised disease was 72% compared to 24% for metastatic disease.

Conclusions

Children with RMS treated in Eastern and Central Europe have inferior outcome compared to their counterparts treated in high income European countries. Active participation of low health expenditures average rates (LHEAR) countries in international clinical trials may improve outcome of paediatric oncology patients.

Abstract

Background

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) presents as locally advanced disease in a majority of patients and is prone to relapse despite aggressive treatment. Since immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have shown clinically significant efficacy in patients with recurrent/metastatic HNSCC (R/M HNSCC), a plethora of trials are investigating their role in earlier stages of disease. At the same time, preclinical data showed the synergistic role of concurrently administered radiotherapy and ICIs (immunoradiotherapy) and explained several mechanisms behind it. Therefore, this approach is prospectively tested in a neoadjuvant, definitive, or adjuvant setting in non-R/M HNSCC patients. Due to the intricate relationship between host, immunotherapy, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, each of these approaches has its advantages and disadvantages. In this narrative review we present the biological background of immunoradiotherapy, as well as a rationale for, and possible flaws of, each treatment approach, and provide readers with a critical summary of completed and ongoing trials.

Conclusions

While immunotherapy with ICIs has already become a standard part of treatment in patients with R/M HNSCC, its efficacy in a non-R/M HNSCC setting is still the subject of extensive clinical testing. Irradiation can overcome some of the cancer’s immune evasive manoeuvres and can lead to a synergistic effect with ICIs, with possible additional benefits of concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy. However, the efficacy of this combination is not robust and details in trial design and treatment delivery seem to be of unprecedented importance.

Abstract

Background

The aim of this project was to collect real-world evidence and describe treatment patterns for stage III non-small cell lung cancer in Central and Eastern Europe. Based on real-world evidence, an expert opinion was developed, and the unmet needs and quality indicators were identified.

Patients and methods

A systematic literature search and a multidisciplinary expert panel of 10 physicians from 7 countries used a modified Delphi process to identify quality indicators and unmet needs in patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer. The profound questionnaire was used to characterize treatment patterns used for stage III non-small cell lung cancer, and a systematic review identified patterns in Central and Eastern Europe. The first questionnaire was completed by a group of medical oncologists, radiation oncologists and pneumologists. The panel of experts attended an in-person meeting to review the results of the questionnaire and to process a second round Delphi. An additional survey was then compiled and completed by the panel.

Results

A complete consensus was reached by the panel of experts on a set of evidence-based clinical recommendations. The experience-based questionnaire generated a highly variable map of treatment patterns within the region. A list of unmet needs and barriers to quality care were developed with near-unanimous consent of the panel of experts.

Conclusions

The current landscape of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in Central and Eastern European countries is highly variable. We identified several significant barriers, mainly related to the availability of diagnostic and imaging methods and low rates of chemoradiotherapy with curative intention as initial treatment for unresectable stage III NSCLC.

Abstract

Background

Two prospective randomized studies analysing cutaneous melanoma (CM) patients with sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastases and rapid development of systemic adjuvant therapy have changed our approach to stage III CM treatment. The aim of this study was to compare results of retrospective survival analysis of stage III CM patients’ treatment from Slovenian national CM register to leading international clinical guidelines.

Patients and methods

Since 2000, all Slovenian CM patients with primary tumour ≥ TIb are treated at the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana and data are prospectively collected into a national CM registry. A retrospective analysis of 2426 sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsies and 789 lymphadenectomies performed until 2015 was conducted using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and log-rank tests.

Results

Positive SLN was found in 519/2426 (21.4%) of patients and completion dissection (CLND) was performed in 455 patients. The 5-year overall survival (OS) of CLND group was 58% vs. 47% of metachronous metastases group (MLNM) (p = 0.003). The 5-year OS of patients with lymph node (LN) metastases and unknown primary site (UPM) was 45% vs. 21% of patients with synchronous LN metastasis. Patients with SLN tumour burden < 0.3 mm had 5-year OS similar to SLN negative patients (86% vs. 85%; p = 0.926). The 5-year OS of patients with burden > 1.0 mm was similar to the MLNM group (49% vs. 47%; p = 0.280).

Conclusions

Stage III melanoma patients is a heterogeneous group with significant OS differences. CLND after positive SLNB might still remain a method of treatment for selected patients with stage III.

Abstract

Background

The aim of the study was to quantify planned doses to the heart and specific cardiac substructures in free-breathing adjuvant three-dimensional radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and tangential intensity modulated radiotherapy (t-IMRT) for left-sided node-negative breast cancer, and to assess the differences in planned doses to organs at risk according to patients’ individual anatomy, including breast volume.

Patients and methods

In the study, the whole heart and cardiac substructures were delineated for 60 patients using cardiac atlas. For each patient, 3D-CRT and t-IMRT plans were generated. The prescribed dose was 42.72 Gy in 16 fractions. Patients were divided into groups with small, medium, and large clinical target volume (CTV). Calculated dose distributions were compared amongst the two techniques and the three different groups of CTV.

Results

Mean absorbed dose to the whole heart (MWHD) (1.9 vs. 2.1 Gy, P < 0.005), left anterior descending coronary artery mean dose (8.2 vs. 8.4 Gy, P < 0.005) and left ventricle (LV) mean dose (3.0 vs. 3.2, P < 0.005) were all significantly lower with 3D-CRT technique compared to t-IMRT. Apical (8.5 vs. 9.0, P < 0.005) and anterior LV walls (5.0 vs. 5.4 Gy, P < 0.005) received the highest mean dose (Dmean). MWHD and LV-Dmean increased with increasing CTV size regardless of the technique. Low MWHD values (< 2.5 Gy) were achieved in 44 (73.3%) and 41 (68.3%) patients for 3D-CRT and t-IMRT techniques, correspondingly.

Conclusions

Our study confirms a considerable range of the planned doses within the heart for adjuvant 3D-CRT or t-IMRT in node-negative breast cancer. We observed differences in heart dosimetric metrics between the three groups of CTV size, regardless of the radiotherapy planning technique.

Abstract

Introduction

Specific correlations among diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-derived metrics and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) metabolite ratios in brains with glioblastoma are still not completely understood.

Patients and methods

We made retrospective cohort study. MRS ratios (choline-to-N-acetyl aspartate [Cho/NAA], lipids and lactate to creatine [LL/Cr], and myo-inositol/creatine [mI/Cr]) were correlated with eleven DTI biomarkers: mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), pure isotropic diffusion (p), pure anisotropic diffusion (q), the total magnitude of the diffusion tensor (L), linear tensor (Cl), planar tensor (Cp), spherical tensor (Cs), relative anisotropy (RA), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) at the same regions: enhanced rim, peritumoral oedema and normal-appearing white matter. Correlational analyses of 546 MRS and DTI measurements used Spearman coefficient.

Results

At the enhancing rim we found four significant correlations: FA ⇔ LL/Cr, Rs = -.364, p = .034; Cp ⇔ LL/Cr, Rs = .362, p = .035; q ⇔ LL/Cr, Rs = -.349, p = .035; RA ⇔ LL/Cr, Rs = -.357, p = .038. Another ten pairs of significant correlations were found in the peritumoral edema: AD ⇔ LL/Cr, AD ⇔ mI/Cr, MD ⇔ LL/Cr, MD ⇔ mI/Cr, p ⇔ LL/Cr, p ⇔ mI/ Cr, RD ⇔ mI/Cr, RD ⇔ mI/Cr, L ⇔ LL/Cr, L ⇔ mI/Cr.

Conclusions

DTI and MRS biomarkers answer different questions; peritumoral oedema represents the biggest challenge with at least ten significant correlations between DTI and MRS that need additional studies. The fact that DTI and MRS measures are not specific of one histologic type of tumour broadens their application to a wider variety of intracranial pathologies.

Abstract

Background

Vulvar cancer accounts for 3–5% of malignant diseases of the female genital tract. The Slovenian incidence rate is 5.5/100,000, which means 57 new cases per year. The most common histological type (90%) is squamous cell carcinoma. Based on etiology, it can be classified into the first type which correlates with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the second type which is not associated with HPV. The most common and long-lasting symptom of vulvar cancer is pruritus. The preferred diagnostic procedure to confirm the diagnosis is a punch or incision biopsy. Surgery in combination with radiotherapy is the standard treatment for vulvar cancer. Sentinel lymph node biopsy with lymphoscintigraphy is now a standard part of surgical treatment. Chemotherapy is a palliative treatment option.

Conclusions

Vulvar cancer is a rare disease. Because of the pathogenesis, surgery and radiotherapy are the main treatment modalities. The sentinel node biopsy (SNB) represents a contemporary approach to the vulvar cancer treatment and significantly reduces morbidity. Improvements in treatment of vulvar cancer contributed to the decrease of mortality among Slovenian women.

Abstract

Background

The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) were analyzed in various carcinomas and their potential prognostic significance was determined. The objective of present study was to determine the correlation between these parameters and the survival of patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), since very few studies have been published on this type of carcinoma.

Patients and methods

One hundred and forty patients diagnosed with SCLC at University Hospital Center Zagreb, between 2012 and 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Extensive-stage disease (ED) was verified in 80 patients and limited-stage disease (LD) in 60 patients. We analyzed the potential prognostic significance of various laboratory parameters, including NLR, PLR, and LMR, measured before the start of treatment.

Results

Disease extension, response to therapy, chest irradiation and prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI), as well as hemoglobin, monocyte count, C-reactive protein (CRP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) showed a prognostic significance in all patients. When we analyzed the patients separately, depending on the disease extension, we found that only skin metastases as well as LDH and NLR values, regardless of the cut-off value, had a prognostic significance in ED. Meanwhile, the ECOG performance status, chest irradiation, PCI, and hemoglobin and creatinine values had a prognostic significance in LD.

Conclusions

NLR calculated before the start of the treatment had a prognostic significance for ED, while PLR and LMR had no prognostic significance in any of the analyzed groups of patients.