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Synthesis and Applications
Modern Methods and Technologies
Series: De Gruyter STEM
Synthesis and Applications
From Concepts to Applications

Abstract

Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanoplatelets (0.6 μm in diameter and 100 nm in thickness) are introduced into epoxy resin to improve the polymer’s thermal conducting ability. As expected, the thermal conductivities (TCs) of the composites, especially the in-plane TCs, are significantly increased. The in-plane TC of the epoxy composites can reach 1.67 W/mK at only 0.53 wt% loading, indicating h-BN nanopletelets are very effective thermal fillers. However, after carefully studied the correlation of the TC improvement and filler content, a sudden drop of the TC around 0.53 wt% filler loading is observed. Such an unexpected decrease in TC has never been reported and is also found to be consistent with the T g changes versus filler content. Similar trend is also observed in other 2-D nanofillers, such as graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, which may indicate it is a general phenomenon for 2-D nanofillers. SEM results suggest that such sudden drop in TC might be coming from the enrichment of these 2-D nanofillers in localized areas due to their tendency to form more ordered phase above certain concentrations.

Abstract

Glycidyl azide polymer (GAP) is well known as an energetic prepolymer, but its application as a binder in propellants is limited due to its relatively high glass transition temperature and relatively poor mechanical properties. Copolymerization of GAP with polypropylene glycol (PPG) has been shown to improve GAPs properties because of the good thermal and mechanical properties of PPG. In this research we synthesized triblock copolymer of PPG-GAP-PPG and the compatibilities of this copolymer were investigated with energetic plasticizers (20% w/w) n-butyl nitroxyethylnitramine (BuNENA), trimethylolethane trinitrate (TMETN), and butanetriol trinitrate (BTTN) by solubility parameter, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), rheological analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vacuum stability test (VST). The DSC results showed that BuNENA had better compatibility with the triblock copolymer in comparison to TMETN and BTTN. It reduced the T g of PPG-GAP-PPG from −58 to −63 °C. The rheological analysis was in good agreement with the DSC results obtained for the compatibility of the plasticizers. In the case of the addition of 20% w/w BuNENA, the viscosity of copolymer/plasticizer decreased from 550 to 128 mPa s, indicating appropriate compatibility of plasticizer with the copolymer. SEM images showed a better distribution of BuNENA in the copolymer matrix.

Abstract

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) contributes to about 85% of lung cancer. By 2040, lung cancer cases estimated to rise to 3.6 million globally. Brigatinib (BG) acts as tyrosine kinase inhibitors that target the epidermal growth factor receptor of the epithelial lung cancer cells. BG loaded nanosponges (NSs) were prepared by the emulsion solvent evaporation technique using ethylcellulose (EC) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a stabilizer. Eight formulations were developed by varying the concentration of the drug (BG), EC and PVA followed by optimization through particle characterization; size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential (ZP), drug entrapment and loading efficiency. The optimized formulation BGNS5 showed particles size (261.0 ± 3.5 nm), PDI (0.301) and ZP(−19.83 ± 0.06 Mv) together with entrapment efficiency (85.69 ± 0.04%) and drug loading (17.69 ± 0.01%). FTIR, DSC, XRD, and SEM showed drug-polymer compatibility, entrapment of drug in EC core, non-crystallinity of BG in NS and confirm spherical porous nature of the NS. BGNS5 reflects drug release in a sustained manner, 86.91 ± 2.12% for about 12 h. BGNS5 significantly decreased the cell viability of A549 human lung cancer cell lines with less hemolytic ratio compared to pure drug BG and EC. Based on the aforementioned results BGNS5 could be used in the effective treatment of NSCLC.

Abstract

The main objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of TiO2-Al2O3 nano-mixture used as filler in improving packaging films performance. Polylactic acid/titanium dioxide (PLA/TiO2), polylactic acid/alumina (PLA/Al2O3) and polylactic acid/TiO2-Al2O3 (PLA/TiO2-Al2O3) nanocomposite films were successfully prepared via melt mixing process and thoroughly characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The properties such as heat resistant, barrier, mechanical and antimicrobial properties, required for food packaging have also been investigated. As compared to the neat PLA film, the developed PLA nanocomposites have displayed superior properties particularly the PLA/ TiO2-Al2O3 nanocomposite film. This resulted material has showed a 22 °C increase in its thermal stability versus 14 and 2 °C in the cases of PLA/TiO2 and PLA/Al2O3 respectively, and a 54% reduction of its water vapor permeability in comparison with 47% for PLA/TiO2 and 39% for PLA/Al2O3. In addition, the PLA/TiO2-Al2O3 had a significant enhancement of its mechanical properties. Its Young modulus increased by 102% unlike 23.60% for the PLA/TiO2 and 44.66% for the PLA/Al2O3. It was also noticed that this nanocomposite film demonstrated stronger antibacterial activity than the two others. The bacterial growth inhibition effect of TiO2-Al2O3 nano-mixture against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli bacteria was more effective than that of its two constituents.

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