Laser threshold magnetometry using the negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV−) centre in diamond as a gain medium has been proposed as a technique to dramatically enhance the sensitivity of room-temperature magnetometry. We experimentally explore a diamond-loaded open tunable fibre-cavity system as a potential contender for the realisation of lasing with NV− centres. We observe amplification of the transmission of a cavity-resonant seed laser at 721 nm when the cavity is pumped at 532 nm and attribute this to stimulated emission. Changes in the intensity of spontaneously emitted photons accompany the amplification, and a qualitative model including stimulated emission and ionisation dynamics of the NV− centre captures the dynamics in the experiment very well. These results highlight important considerations in the realisation of an NV− laser in diamond.
We report a homogeneous quantum cascade laser (QCL) emitting at terahertz (THz) frequencies, with a total spectral emission of about 0.6 THz, centered around 3.3 THz, a current density dynamic range Jdr = 1.53, and a continuous wave output power of 7 mW. The analysis of the intermode beatnote unveils that the devised laser operates as an optical frequency comb (FC) synthesizer over the whole laser operational regime, with up to 36 optically active laser modes delivering ∼200 µW of optical power per optical mode, a power level unreached so far in any THz QCL FC. A stable and narrow single beatnote, reaching a minimum linewidth of about 500 Hz, is observed over a current density range of 240 A/cm2 and even across the negative differential resistance region. We further prove that the QCL FC can be injection locked with moderate radio frequency power at the intermode beatnote frequency, covering a locking range of 1.2 MHz. The demonstration of stable FC operation, in a QCL, over the full current density dynamic range, and without any external dispersion compensation mechanism, makes our proposed homogenous THz QCL an ideal tool for metrological applications requiring mode-hop electrical tunability and a tight control of the frequency and phase jitter.
Diamond has attracted great interest as an appealing material for various applications ranging from classical to quantum optics. To date, Raman lasers, single photon sources, quantum sensing and quantum communication have been demonstrated with integrated diamond devices. However, studies of the nonlinear optical properties of diamond have been limited, especially at the nanoscale. Here, a metasurface consisting of plasmonic nanogap cavities is used to enhance both χ(2) and χ(3) nonlinear optical processes in a wedge-shaped diamond slab with a thickness down to 12 nm. Multiple nonlinear processes were enhanced simultaneously due to the relaxation of phase-matching conditions in subwavelength plasmonic structures by matching two excitation wavelengths with the fundamental and second-order modes of the nanogap cavities. Specifically, third-harmonic generation (THG) and second-harmonic generation (SHG) are both enhanced 1.6 × 107-fold, while four-wave mixing is enhanced 3.0 × 105-fold compared to diamond without the metasurface. Even though diamond lacks a bulk χ(2) due to centrosymmetry, the observed SHG arises from the surface χ(2) of the diamond slab and is enhanced by the metasurface elements. The efficient, deeply subwavelength diamond frequency converter demonstrated in this work suggests an approach for conversion of color center emission to telecom wavelengths directly in diamond.
In this paper, we study the optimization of two tilt angles corresponding to two antenna arrays in each base station (BS) of a massive multiple-input multiple-output system. We consider two scenarios with perfect channel state information (CSI) and imperfect CSI. In the limit of the number of the BS antennas, the channel orthogonality is employed to derive the limit and the lower bound of the throughputs. By maximizing the lower bound or the limit throughput, the two antenna tilt angles are optimized. Simulation results show that the throughput performance can be improved with the designed tilt angles.
Transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) semiconductor heterostructures are actively explored as a new platform for quantum optoelectronic systems. Most state of the art devices make use of insulating hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) that acts as a wide-bandgap dielectric encapsulating layer that also provides an atomically smooth and clean interface that is paramount for proper device operation. We report the observation of large, through-hBN photocurrents that are generated upon optical excitation of hBN encapsulated MoSe2 and WSe2 monolayer devices. We attribute these effects to Auger recombination in the TMDs, in combination with an asymmetric band offset between the TMD and the hBN. We present experimental investigation of these effects and compare our observations with detailed, ab-initio modeling. Our observations have important implications for the design of optoelectronic devices based on encapsulated TMD devices. In systems where precise charge-state control is desired, the out-of-plane current path presents both a challenge and an opportunity for optical doping control. Since the current directly depends on Auger recombination, it can act as a local, direct probe of both the efficiency of the Auger process as well as its dependence on the local density of states in integrated devices.
In this paper, parallel coupled meander lines (PCML) composite right/left-handed transmission line (CRLH-TL) based symmetrical quasi-0 dB coupled-line coupler is presented. Proposed coupler shows measured backward wave coupling level of 0.81 dB at frequency of 6.17 GHz with 3 dB fractional bandwidth (FBW) of 12.64%. Throughout the 3 dB frequency range (5.78–6.56 GHz), isolation and insertion loss of the coupler is better than 24 dB. Overall size of the proposed coupler is 19.6 × 12.1 mm. An equivalent lumped LC circuit model of the coupler is demonstrated. Measured results of the coupler show good agreement with the electromagnetic (EM) simulated and lumped LC circuit model simulated results, which validates proposed coupler design and its performance.
Miniaturizing the microwave circuits for micro-satellite platform has been one of the development trends in microwave remote sensing. A novel 89/118/166/183 GHz frequency dividing network is proposed in this paper which includes two stages: the first stage is an F-G band diplexer that separate 89/118 GHz signals from 166/183 GHz signals. The measured typical transmission loss is 1.5 dB from 83.75 to 124 GHz at one output port as well as 1dB from 141 to 190 GHz at another output port. The second stage contains two diplexers based on waveguide circuit to separate the signals further. The measured typical transmission loss is 0.5 dB for the 89/118 GHz diplexer and 1 dB for the 166/183 GHz diplexer. The above-mentioned frequency dividing network has a vast application prospect due to compact structure and good performance.
Distribution of the atomic polarization in a Cesium vapor cell, induced by optical pumping, is analytically calculated and discussed when an external magnetic field interacts with the system. Based on the rate equations of the optically pumped atomic system and considering the effect of magnetically induced dichroism on the absorption of polarized propagating light, we have obtained the light intensity and atomic polarization distribution along the propagation direction of the gas cell. It is shown that based on the initial light polarization and the laser detuning, the external magnetic field considerably changes the polarization distribution. The obtained results of the polarization distribution versus applied magnetic field can be used for different investigations, including the study of the atomic magnetometer’s sensitivity.