The history of humanity got from the Persians the first imperial organization, the first process of integration of the conquered ones, the first postal service, the most effective means of communication at the dawn of Antiquity, and also the best organized militarized services.
The most special of the Indo-European Antiquity troops was the Royal Guard, founded by Darius I, one of the great kings of humanity, a political titan, and equally an extraordinary general through his institutional creations of force. The Royal Guard of Darius I, known in history as the 10,000 immortals, is the subject of our study, as it is one of the most complex special militarized structures in human history of all time, inspiring the military structures of all the Indo-Europeans, whether the Hoplite revolution, the organization of the Macedonian phalanx or the Roman Praetorian Guard and more than that.
The 10,000 immortals combined not only the heroic character (while multiplying it), which appeared for the first time with the Greeks of the Homeric period, but also strict discipline, in the Spartan sense, contemporary with this troop, the organization and the well-developed logistics, which would inspire the Roman army, the military brotherhoods characteristic of all the Indo-Europeans, but this totally special troop, in particular, imposed the model of the educated (even intellectual) military man, a soldier of the supreme god of the Good, faithful first of all to the Good and to his king, a military man who used all the weapons of the time.
This special troop was a true institution that also provided information to the Persian king, information being one of the most effective weapons. Moreover, the Persians through this Royal Guard used for the first time psychological impact as a weapon, this being the first case of effective manipulation by the number that was kept constant, but also by name. Only the gods were immortal, and the very large number of soldiers who made up this special troop is impressive even today. The armament of this extraordinary troop comprised all the weapons of the time, the bow above all, which the Aryans considered the favourite weapon of Indra, the most warlike god of the Indo-European gods.
In the last decade, the world has faced a major change of the security balance, new directions of action being drawn by the main actors of the global scene. States are trying to expand their spheres of influence, to invest in research and technological development, especially to achieve the military superiority in different operational domains, to train their armies following the evolution of the security environment and the changing trends of conducting the armed struggle and to improve their military capabilities to gain or to maintain control over certain areas of interest. This is why, in the last years, the states have invested in military assets that can assure a complete implementation of the anti-access/area denial concept. Starting from the ideas that the A2/AD concept can be applied to all operational environments and that the cyberspace is the fifth domain of the armed struggle, in this paper, after a short glance at the increased interest of three powerful countries in this particular concept, a fastidious excogitation on it will be performed in the second part, while the third part will contain information regarding the cyber operations and their role in implementing the A2/AD concept in the battlefield characterized by 0s and 1s and, lastly, the main objectives of pursuing cyber attacks will be analyzed.
This article presents some lines of effort to reach the specific objectives, for a topical area of collective security, the management of consequences. Conceptual correlations in this spectrum are highlighted between emergencies, critical infrastructures, community resilience. Theoretical research is accompanied by examples taken from practice, the case study at national level being focused on the contribution made to the efficient management of the consequences of the processes specific to the preparation of the economy and the territory for defense. It is emphasized, based on the experience of the specific events of the Covid 19 dynamics, the role and importance of this sector of administrative activity in the critical infrastructure security plan.
Using the lessons learned from recent military operations such as Operation Inherent Resolve (OIR) from Syria and Iraq, we proposed to investigate the need for tactical military units to adapt operationally to grapple with the most common requirements specific to current operational environments, but also for those that can be foreseen in the future. In this regard, by identifying the best practices in the field that can be met at the level of some important armies, such as USA and UK, we will try to determine a common denominator of most important principles whose application may facilitate both operational and organizational adaptation necessary for tactical military units to perform missions and tasks in the most unknown future operational environments.
The terrorist attacks of 9/11 took the USA and NATO by surprise, as they are still under the euphoric effect of celebrating the fall of the Eastern European ideological walls and the collapse of the communist bloc. The immediate response of the military operations led to the neutralization of the Taliban forces or more precisely to their removed from political power and denial the influence of Al Qaeda. The purely military approach dominated the initial kinetic clashes and conquered the physical terrain but failed to dominate the society marked by perennial conflicts, widespread corruption, poverty and multiple ethnic and tribal fragmentations. The Afghan insurgency that formed seems to have managed to slow down and finally block the reconstruction and development effort made by the strong NATO-centred coalitions. The article examines the causes of the Afghan “fog of war” that led to this great failure and makes recommendations that must be taken into account in future military conflicts.
The European defense agency (EDA) is the key institution in the European Union in implementing resource security measures for the Common Security and Defense Policy (CSDP). The Agency has set objectives in the field of military resource development, defense research and development, pan-European armaments cooperation projects, strengthening the industrial and technological resources and as a key focus the creation of a common competitive market for military and dual-use products. Significant progress has also been made in the area of unmanned aerial vehicles (Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems, RPAS). The goal of the project is to introduce unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) into the internal airspace. The Agency coordinates the interaction between UAV national operators the European Commission, represented by the Directorate-General for Mobility and Transport and the European UAV Group.
The article contains an analysis on a topic that is and will always be important for the simple reason that any topic, change, opportunity or financial restriction with direct or indirect repercussions on the population of a nation will be in the interest of the citizen. And I refer to the citizen in the general way, because the European funds, one of the many good consequences of the great economic union of which we are a part, namely the European Union, aims to increase in each area whose contribution to the gross domestic product can become significant. Private or state environment, company or simply citizen, anyone can become the beneficiary of a project funded by European funds. The proof of this fact is the analysis of the absorption of funds on each operational program. Developing or covering deficiencies in areas of strategic importance, such as infrastructure, can lead to the raising of other areas in the chain and ultimately to the increase of the standard of living and economic growth.
The paper presents an analytical method for determining the estimated amount of propellant charge for the reusable training-practice mortar round intended for short distance firing, as a part of simulator for mortar crews. For verification of the analytical method an experimental research was conducted where the 82mm training-practice mortar round was fired at a distance of 100 meters. The experimental research and the verification of the statistical hypothesis confirm that the formula can be used to practically determine the required amount of propellant charge.