Knowledge Engineering (KE) is a fi eld within artifi cial intelligence that develops knowledgebased systems. KE is the process of imitating how a human expert in a specifi c domain would act and take decisions. It contains large amounts of knowledge, like metadata and information about a data object that describes characteristics such as content, quality, and format, structure and processes. Such systems are computer programs that are the basis of how a decision is made or a conclusion is reached. It is having all the rules and reasoning mechanisms to provide solutions to real-world problems. This book presents an extensive collection of the recent fi ndings and innovative research in the information system and KE domain. Highlighting the challenges and diffi culties in implementing these approaches, this book is a critical reference source for academicians, professionals, engineers, technology designers, analysts, undergraduate and postgraduate students in computing science and related disciplines such as Information systems, Knowledge Engineering, Intelligent Systems, Artifi cial Intelligence, Cognitive Neuro - science, and Robotics. In addition, anyone who is interested or involved in sophisticated information systems and knowledge engineering developments will fi nd this book a valuable source of ideas and guidance.