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, 70, 84,130, 132. See also pensioners elections, Russian Federation: 1993 parliamentary, 69-70; 1995 parliamentary, 134—5; 1999 parliamentary, 135, 137-8; 2003 parliamentary, 159; 1996 presiden- Index of Subjects 243 tial, 134-5; 2000 presidential, 138; regional (gubernatorial), 133. See also voting behaviour elections, Russian Soviet Federated Soviet Republic, 1991 presidential, 159 elections, Soviet Union, 1989 parliamentary, 52 enterprises, 78-81, 127, 134-6, 139-40 European Union, 135, 137 executive powers, 14 executive-legislative relations, 88-9; Russian

of electoral systems, 242, 243, 249 representation, 81, 281 sampling, 101 seats, 7, 237 self-control, 57, 58 self-interest, 19, 20, 22, 204 socialization, 175, 177 social norms, 71 social pressure, 9, 69, 70, 71, 77, 78 socio-economic status, 82, 83 strategic voting, behaviour, incentives, 7, 12, 237, 242, 245, 246, 248, 254, 258, 259, 266, 269 surveillance, 74, 75, 76, 77 Sweden, 65, 184 Switzerland, 184, 213, 238, 243, 245, 253 turnout, 5, 55, 56, 61, 69, 70, 77, 81, 82, 83 United Kingdom, 210 United States, 78, 81, 122, 171, 184, 210, 213, 228 utility, 27

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153 Sectoral cleavages and voting behaviour 154 Consumption sector and housing classes 156 Civil society and state welfare 161 Conclusions: sociology and social welfare 165 viii Contents 7 8 Need, rights and welfare 168 Introduction 168 Welfare policy and social' change 169 Need and social policy 171 Human needs I: political theory and conceptual analysis 173 Human needs II: conceptual analysis in a social context 176 Human needs III: the social construction of social need Hegel and the need for emancipation Exploitation and emancipation

André Blais is a professor in the Department of Political Science and research fellow with the Centre de recherche et de développement en économique at the Université de Montréal. His research interests in- clude elections and voting behaviour, electoral rules, polls and public opinion, and methodology. He has been a co-investigator with the Cana- dian Election Study since 1988. His most recent book is To Vote or Not to Vote? The Merits and Limits of Rational Choice Theory (2000). He has pub- lished eleven other books and more than one hundred articles in jour

Éric Bélanger is professor in the Department of Political Science at McGill University and is a member of the Centre for the Study of Dem- ocratic Citizenship. His research interests include political parties, pub- lic opinion, and voting behaviour, as well as Quebec and Canadian politics. He has published more than fifty articles on these topics in scholarly journals such as Comparative Political Studies, Political Research Quarterly, Electoral Studies, Publius: The Journal of Federalism, the Euro­ pean Journal of Political Research, and the Canadian Journal

-Election Surveys 84 Figure 3.10 Evaluations of Party Leaders, 2004 85 Figure 3.11 Feelings about Party Leaders, 2004 87 Figure 4.1 The Dynamics of President Bush’s Job Approval Rating, January 2001–November 2006 103 Figure 4.2 Relationship between Party Identification and Voting Behavior, 1952– 2004 ANES Surveys 107 Figure 4.3 Dynamics of Party Identification in ANES Surveys, 1952–2004 108 Figure 4.4 Trends in Party Identification in Gallup Surveys, 1953–2006 109 Figure 4.5 Trends in Party Identification in NAES Surveys, October 2003–November 2004 110

Comparative Judicial Behavior: Cross-Cultural Studies of Political Deci- sion Making in the East and West, ed. Glendon Schubert and David J. Danelski. New York: Oxford University Press. Gadbois, George H., Jr. 1969. ‘Selection, Background Characteristics, and Voting Behavior of Indian Supreme Court Judges.’ In Comparative Judicial Behavior: Cross-Cultural Studies of Political Decision Making in the East and West, ed. Glendon Schubert and David J. Danelski. New York: Oxford University Press. Galanter, Marc. 1974. ‘Why the “Haves” Come Out Ahead: Speculations on the

, especially among younger voters, retained considerable appeal. Nationalist sentiments could be a powerful political force. Similarities and differences such as those mentioned above make comparisons of voting behavior in Canada and the United States an interesting enterprise with potentially large payoffs. We begin with an overview of the ways political scientists have tried to comprehend the act of voting. As noted above, we will compare and evaluate four alternative models that have been employed to explain how voters 18 P o l i t i ca l Ch o i ce s a n d Va l e

and the parties preferred on these issues. A multivariate model of forces affecting voting behaviour is used to determine how changes in feelings about party leaders, party-issue preferences, and partisan identifications could have changed the outcome of the election. The results of this analysis lends force to the conclusion that the 1997 election was one that "everyone lost." Canada's national parties, like the country itself, continue to face an uncertain future. THE ROAD TO NOWHERE: THE 1997 CAMPAI6N Prelude For most of the three and one-half years between the

, race, ethnicity, citizenship, and status as a prisoner. We begin this section by analysing the 106 discrimination claims from a quantitative perspective, follow- ing much the same format as we used in the prior two sections of the book by providing various descriptive statistics, followed by analysing the voting behaviour of the justices, and ending with logistic regression models that control for various judge- and case-level variables in the equation. Descriptive Statistics and Judicial Voting Patterns The data in the first seven tables provide descriptive