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Contents Preface vii Introduction: Disability, Politics, and Citizenship 3 PART ONE: AMBIGUITIES, EXCLUSIONS, AND DIVISIONS 1 Pride and Prejudice: Canadian Ambivalence towards Inclusion 31 2 City Life and the Politics of Strangers 51 3 Social Stratification, the State, and Disability 68 PART TWO: CAPACITIES, ENGAGEMENTS, AND INCLUSIONS 4 Mainstreaming Disabilities in Public Policies 91 5 The Canadian Disability Community: Five Arenas of Social Action and Capacity 112 6 From Barriers to Ballots: Participating in Electoral Systems 134 7 Engaging in Policy

Index absolute effects (of electoral system), 242, 243, 249 advertising, 154 altruism, 9, 20, 22, 23, 24, 31, 35, 36, 38, 40, 46 ambiguity aversion, 57 ambivalence, 134, 135, 143, 144, 157 behavioural: anomalies, 55; economics, 21, 22 calculus, of voting, 68, 78 campaign, 108, 129, 130, 133, 138, 139, 148, 154; effects, 131, 137, 138, 148, 154 Canada, 6, 81, 82, 91, 121, 122, 123, 136, 210, 279 causal inference, 69 civic duty, obligation, 68, 69, 71, 72 collective action, 68, 70 Columbia school, 5, 6, 7, 278, 279 Comparative Study of Electoral Sys- tems

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.1 Correlations among Absolute and Relative Effects 249 10.2 Correlations between the Seats Difference (Log) and the Electoral System Effects 250 10.3 Average Total Effect and Average Relative Effects by Number of Incumbents 251 10.4 Average Total Effect and Average Relative Effects by Number of Small Party Candidates 252 10.5 Average Total Effect and Average Relative Effects by Coordination Differential between Left-Wing and Right-Wing Camps 253 11.1 Strategic and (Total) Sincere Voting by Electoral System 261 11.2 Preference and Vote Choice 263 11.3 Preference and

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Making Every Vote Count: Reassessing Canada's Electoral System This page intentionally left blank Making Every Vote Count edited by Henry Milner broadview press b R E A S S E S S I N G C A N A D A S E L E C T O R A L SYSTEM Copyright © 1999 Henry Milner All rights reserved. The use of this publication reproduced, transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, or stored in a retrieval system, without prior written consent of the publisher—or in the case of photo- copying, a licence from CANCOPY (Canadian

- 1967. Montreal: Editions Ste-Marie. Blais, Andre. 1988. 'The Classification of Electoral Systems.' European Journal of Political Research 16: 99-110. - 2000. To Vote or Not to Vote? The Merits and Limits of Rational Choice Theory. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. Blais, Andre, and Agnieszka Dobrzynska. 1998. Turnout in Electoral Democra- cies.' European Journal of Political Research 33: 239-62. Blais, Andre, Agnieszka Dobrzynska, and Louis Massicotte. 2001. 'Les vari- ables institutionnelles affectent-elles la participation electorate en regime

system. But the discussion rekindles when, as with the back-to-back elections of 1979 and 1980 or 1993, and 1997, votes have been "unfairly" translated into seats. The electoral system is blamed for having "fragmented" the political system by producing either a regionally unbalanced minority parliament (1979) or discriminating markedly against some parties and in favour of others in a majority-gov- ernment parliament (1980, 1993 and 1997). In either case, critics can with- out much difficulty point to a flawed institutional framework for converting votes into seats and

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Democracy among Policy Winners and Losers 227 10.1 Sequence of Psychological and Mechanical Effects 240 10.2 Distribution of Absolute and Relative Electoral System Effects 247 Figures This page intentionally left blank

proportional system in 2005. This chapter evaluates the effects of both these reforms on gen- der balance in political representation in Ukraine. It first provides a 76 Anastasiya Salnykova summary of the available knowledge on the interaction between elec- toral systems and women’s representation. Another institutional tool, gender quotas, is also briefly addressed here. Then the case study of Ukraine is presented, followed by a discussion of probable outcomes of the current electoral system in terms of women’s representation. The chapter concludes that PR has not

. Finally, we explore how electoral systems matter for these decisions. In part III, Anderson studies the impact of party system polarization and the number of parties on attitudes of democratic legitimacy. The chapter by Lachat looks at the psychological effects of electoral systems on voter behaviour. The question of strategic voting and how electoral systems affect it is the topic of Aldrich and Stephenson’s chapter. The individual citizen is central to all of this. Individuals decide whether to vote in an election and who weigh up the choices in front of them

List of Tables and Figures M A K I N G EVERY VOTE COUNT 7 Table i-i Table 1-2 Table 1-3 Table 2-1 Table 2-2 Table 4-1 Figure 4-1 Table 4-2 Table 4-3 Table 4-4 Table 5-1 Table 9-1 Table 9-2 Table 10-1 Table ii-i Table 11-2 Table 11-3 Table 11-4 Table 11-5 Table 13-1 Table 13-2 Table 13-3 A Comparison of Electoral Systems, 22 Winning Percentages in the 1997 Canadian Federal Election, 23 Seat-Vote Ratios in the Canadian House of Commons 1997, 32 Simulation of the 1997 Canadian Federal Election Results, 39 Income Distribution in Rich Democracies: The Luxembourg