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, 94 — 5 Economist, 73, 167, 251-2 Eden, Anthony, punitive attitude towards Italy of, 35-6 Einaudi, Giulio, 174. See also leronte nazionale della cultura Einaudi, Luigi, 74, 83 electoral fraud, allegations of, 233 - 4, 254, 256 electoral law, 215 , 274 - 6, 280 electoral results (June 1946), 49-50, 155, 234, 236, 244, 249; implica- tions of, 51-2, 260 electoral results (April 1948), 236 - 40, 241- 3, 248; clienteles, 247-8; collapse of minor parties, 248 - 9; geographic variants in, 243 - 4 electoral system, 274, 278; history of, 336nn4, 10 Ethiopian War, 29. See

provincial diets were drastically reduced. The February patent approved fi fteen statutes of the reconstituted provincial diets, with their associated regulations, providing for an electoral system that gave the right to vote to only those who possessed a certain amount of property, albeit minimal. The electoral system was based on four curias, representing different social groups; in Dalmatia they were called the constituency of the highly as- sessed (owners of a large amount of property), the constituencies of the cities, those of the chambers of commerce, and

understand the minds of the people in a free country like Britain. How, then, could he know what the people thought in a country without free elections, free polls, the free press, and other means of fathoming their mood? He could not. Did he suspect that there was dissent in the country? He certainly insisted that this was so. Since Stalin could not introduce an electoral system into the one-party, one-man dictatorship, the ubiquitous deployment of the secret police and their agents and informers took the place of free elections. Instead of elections, Stalin used the

, BobrzyÛski welcomed greater peasant participation in politics and endorsed the establishment of an independent peasant faction in the assembly. He nonetheless believed that peasant political activities should be limited to a representative, not administrative, role.39 As governor of Galicia, BobrzyÛski introduced a proposal to reform the electoral system for the Galician Diet that would have dramatically enhanced the representation of peasants and workers, as well as that of the Ukrainians. The collapse of the reform initiative over the opposi- Micha¬ BobrzyÛski (1849

implement the provisions of the Vienna Compromise of 1890. Be- cause of bitter Young Czech and popular opposition to the Compromise, however, he was unable to fulfil his promise, and support from the Left diminished. His makeshift regime entered a crisis in the fall of 1893, when he proposed to modify the electoral system in Cisleithanian Austria in order to bolster his majority in preparation for important debates on the state budget and the defence law. In October he submitted to Parliament a bill that would have amended the system by dropping the five

representatives (pred- voditeli). Local self-governing bodies i n the Russian Empire such as town councils and volost officers (see *Cities and towns, *Nobility, *Volost) were elected by a very small electorate based on estate, property, and corporative qualifications. Elections and an electoral system in the modern sense appeared in the Austr ian and Russian empires only at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century w h e n the ideas of parlia- mentarianism and democracy became widespread. Elections to the provincial diet of Galicia, which was set up in

made by members, weekly, or monthly? How do they pay? How do you proportion payments with subsidies? do they all have to pay the same amount? What purpose do the vicentine mutual aid societies serve? How do you keep and invest the society’s funds? in your societies is there an electoral system?58 luzzatti did not ask: How do you go about attracting members to join the association? What are the best ways of instilling feelings of brother- hood, of giving the members a chance to get to know each other? on those rare occasions when luzzatti and lampertico addressed

.S. policy-makers worried about how reluctant DC supporters would react to an electoral system that severely limited their genuine political choices. One of the legacies of April 1948, some American observers feared, was to rob the nascent democracy of just such vital popular content with the postwar political system. The polarized ideological nature of the results, James Dunn complained to Secretary of State George Marshall a week after the election, was bound to create a two-party system quite unlike that of the United States or Great Britain; the Italian version was des

consolidation have long acknowledged that major disagreements among democratic politicians and parties over such elementary issues as the form of government, or the type of electoral system, or as in the case of Italy, the nature and extent of social and economic reform, can create doubts about the very legitimacy of the nascent democratic system. As the political scientists Juan Linz and Alfred Stepan observe, such el- ementary indeterminacy about 'core procedures' necessary to demo- cratic governance 'may not only leave the transition incomplete, but also postpone any

functioned unti l 1918. Jurisdiction over educational, economic, and other affairs was transferred to them from the parliament in Vienna. Because of the "curial electoral system, the Ukrainian deputies had little influence in the provincial diets. According to the constitution of 1921, the Polish chamber of deputies i n the parliament was to be k n o w n as the Sejm (Diet). Its wide range of powers was reduced while the Senate's powers were increased after J. Pi lsud- ski's coup d'état i n M a y 1926 and again by the constitu- tion of 1935. (See also "Parliament