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clash threatened the structure of Canadian political parties. But they did not over- whelm it. The tidal wave came later with the war. Politics and Political Culture 49 PARTIES AND VOTERS So much for the level of political events which, in turn, affect party organi- zation and individual voting behaviour. In a two-party system where the two parties are relatively closely balanced, independents play an important role. Research into voting behaviour has shown independents to be better in- formed than those who are unflinching adherents of a single party. In pre- war

sociologist, if reliance is placed upon only those facts which come to be reported by the historian. What this 288 The Developing Canadian Community can mean is the building up of a body of sociological generalizations on the basis of comparison when what is being compared is not really comparable. Efforts to examine over a period of time reaching back into history the relation of social class to voting behaviour afford an example of the hazards involved in this type of comparative soci- ological analysis. Here the sociologist approaches his task with a fairly good idea of

accordingly at the ballot box. For candi- dates opting to go negative, the results suggest that the best course of action is to draw other parties into negative campaigns as a means of minimizing the loss in vote share. If voters are intrigued but turned off by negative messages, what does this mean for candidates facing accusations of immoral or ques- tionable behaviour? In chapter 3, we investigated this question directly by examining the impact of scandalous news about candidates on Ca- nadian voting behaviour. While attacking one’s opponents seemed to generate

.729 to 0.472. Finally, federalism and presidentialism lead to significantly less sincere voting (both Pure and Total) and have posi- tive (although insignificant) effects on strategic behaviour. All together, these findings suggest that our expectations were mis- informed. Not all variables that affect the incentives and opportunity for strategic voting matter. Political information, political participa- tion, and attitudes about electoral outcomes do emerge as significant factors for some types of voting behaviour, but not as we expected. Similarly, the

minorities in Australia have led to a pan-ethnic group consciousness, as is demonstrated in Canada and the United States. The findings reveal that, in fact, Australia’s largest “non- white” pan-ethnic group has a distinctive voting behaviour, although this group has been less likely than groups in other settler countries to mobilize pan-ethnic-group-based collective action for better policy outcomes. I offer several explanations for such collective action 6 Race, Ethnicity, and the Participation Gap in Australia, including the lack of a civil rights infrastructure

served, 54, 110–11, 114 – topics of debate, 59–60, 190–1 – vote against own government, 4–5, 8, 42–3, 124 – vote with own government, 79–80, 244 – voting behaviour (see voting behaviour of individual MPs) – voting options, 4, 72, 79–80 – voting record vs votes received in elections, 50. See also specific topics Mercier, Honoré, 160 Methodists: and Conservatives, 154, 155, 157; and Liberals, 156, 157, 159, 185; voters’ behaviour, 154, 155 methodological limitations in book, 81, 239–43 Métis, 26 Miller, James R., 149–50 ministerial appointments, for loyalty, 102

the opinions of Canadians; many of these are primarily aimed at explaining voting behaviour. Only recently have books been published which provide in- depth analyses of opinions in Canada, or explore the divergence be- tween opinions expressed by residents of this country and those of our neighbours to the south. There are also several texts on research meth- ods available which explain techniques for conducting polls and sur- veys. Many of these have a Canadian orientation, but they do not always deal with the problems and challenges of collecting public 4 Polling

, it also relies on the use of words (a quali- tative orientation) to make the correct interpretation of the results. Similarly, qualitative methods often rely on quantitative information to make a correct interpretation. In short, rather than being independent approaches to the use of technology, the two are complementary meth- odologies that support and enhance one another.1 A Brief History of Political Research Methods Most of the research on the voting behavior of citizens has focused on investigative studies carried out in various social science fields.2 The

is a member of the Centre for the Study of Democratic Citizenship. His research interests include politi- cal parties, public opinion, and voting behaviour, as well as Quebec and Canadian politics. He has co-authored Le comportement électoral des Québécois (2009), winner of the 2010 Donald Smiley Prize. His arti- cles have appeared in Comparative Political Studies , Political Research Quarterly , Electoral Studies , Publius: The Journal of Federalism , the European Journal of Political Research , and the Canadian Journal of Political Science . Karen

-1918' (PHD thesis, Queen's University, 1975) 303 Sources Turenne, Roger E., 'The Minority and the Ballot Box: A Study of the Voting Behaviour of the French Canadians of Manitoba 1888-1967' (MA thesis, University of Manitoba, 1969) linger, Gordon, 'James G. Gardiner: The Premier as a Pragmatic Politician 1926-1929' (MA thesis, University of Saskatchewan, 1967) Wiseman, Nelson, 'A Political History of the Manitoba CCF-NDP' (PHD thesis, University of Toronto, 1975) This page intentionally left blank