Jerome Frank (1930), Pritchett (1941) began systematically
examining the votingbehaviour of US Supreme Court justices. These
scholars asked a rather straightforward question: If justices were truly
unbiased and only enforced legal rules, why did they not reach the
same conclusion in the application of the law? This scepticism led to
the publication of the now-classic work by Pritchett (1941, 1948) on the
Roosevelt Court, which subsequently sparked the rise of more system-
atic attitudinal research on appellate courts in the United States.
Over the last 75 years
and Welzel 2005, 23–5). Since justices necessarily develop overarching
world views in their formative years that reflect the values of their soci-
ety, the postmaterialist value change reflected in Canadian public opin-
ion should eventually become evident in the votingbehaviour of the
judicial elites. Moreover, justices appointed more recently to the high
court should exhibit votingbehaviour that supports quality-of-life con-
cerns, such as protection of the environment, to a greater extent than
their older, more materialistic cohorts.
With justices on
Assembly, the election
had kept the threat of separatism alive.
At the Polls
A province-wide survey conducted immediately before the election
enables us to investigate factors that influenced votingbehaviour.
Regarding socio-demographic characteristics, as in the 1995 sover-
eignty referendum, the vote varied sharply across language groups.
As Figure 9.2 shows, Liberal support among non-Francophones was
overwhelming, with fully 93 per cent of the decided voters reporting
that they intended to vote Liberal, and only 5 per cent saying that
they would vote PQ. In contrast
growth of partisanship after Confederation. In the second part, I move beyond
a simple analysis of the determinants of party voting unity to assess whether
the changing preferences of members or the introduction of new parliamentary
rules promoted the emergence of new parties in the legislative arena.
By pursuing these objectives, the book makes four important contributions
to the study of Canadian political institutions and parties. For one, it is the first
study of its kind to analyse systematically the legislative votingbehaviour of all
port for the candidate across scenarios can be due only to the difference
in the tone of the message. Thus, we can determine the extent to which
campaign tone causes changes in votingbehaviour.
Put differently, experiments give researchers increased confidence in
the “cause” of a change given the control they have over the environ-
ment, which allows them to rule out other factors.4 Of course, it is fair
to ask, how can we be sure that the individuals in the two groups are,
in fact, similar? This is achieved by randomly assigning the participants
will not, however, be focused on an individ-
ual's membership in the many voluntary associations, such as fra-
ternal, service and 11pressure 11 organizations, in Canadian life.
This is of only limited significance in the larger consideration of in-
fluence on the total vote in an election. ( 2) Rather, reference group
forces as determinants of votingbehaviour will be emphasized. ( 3)
In this view, the familial as well as the extended social environment
of individuals ( their religious and ethnic affiliations, their area or
place of residence, their economic
number of countries, but its failure to effect fundamental changes in
the social order once elected - has given new impetus to an attempt to un-
cover the connections between state and class structure, between the formal
political equality of liberal democracy and the socio-economic inequality of
capitalist society. Yet again, the increasing expression of industrial class
conflict has reinvigorated 'class analysis' and pushed it far beyond the nar-
row confines of votingbehaviour research. In Canada, these kinds of fac-
tors have been compounded by an additional
Frizzell, Allan, and Jon H. Pammett, eds.
The Canadian General Election of 1997.
Toronto: Dundurn Press, 1998.
Gairdner, William D., ed. After Liberalism.
Toronto: Stoddart, 1998.
Granberg, Donald, and Soren Holmberg.
The Political System Matters: Social
Psychology and VotingBehavior in Sweden
and the United States. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1988.
Gray, John, ed. On Liberty and Other Essays.
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.
Grofman, Bernard, and Arend Lijphart, eds.
Electoral Laws and Their Political Conse-
quences. New York: Agathon Press, 1986