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, Minorities and Women. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. References 246 References Arvizu, John R., and F. Chris Garcia. 1996. “Latino Voting Participation: Explaining and Differentiating Latino Voting Turnout.” Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 18 (2): 104–28. Ashcroft, Lord. 2012. “Degrees of Separation: Ethnic Minority Voters and the Conservative Party.” London: Biteback. wp- content/uploads/2012/04/DEGREES- OF- SEPARATION.pdf. Bacon, Jacqueline. 2007. Freedom’s Journal: The First African- American Newspaper

the vote count in their favour, given the resources available. This had the result of reducing overall turnout relative to earlier times, but of increasing the predictability of outcomes. It also resulted in the cen- tralization of the process. In 2004, the Democrats relied on this basic process, although they executed it with exceptional competence and zeal. As Matt Bai reported (2004), the Democrats focused on ‘hard yeses’: ‘They found stalwart Democratic voters – the base – and pounded them with mail, phone calls and visits to make sure they went to the polls

membership (1986, 2002), the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (1992), participation in UN peacekeep- ing operations (1994), the initiation of negotiations to join the European Union (1997), and closer economic ties with the European Union (EU) (2000). While participation in international treaties and organizations accounts for only a small part of the diverse subject matter of Swiss refer- endums, they have tended to enjoy a greater profile in national politics and have sometimes attracted a higher turnout.4 While referendums on international treaties

, but they are under-represented as well. And there is a very weak aboriginal presence among elected decision makers, even in the west. Voting turnout at elections is always a matter of interest. The verdict arising from the chapters is that electoral participation is low, so much so in Alberta that the authors write of a ‘democratic deficit.’ Depend- ing on the nature and goals of a municipality, citizen participation can be important in building a consensus and legitimizing decisions. But turnout rates in most municipalities are well below those characteris- tic of

United States, but voting turnout in American elections was already quite low when the downward trend began elsewhere. Why people do not vote is also one of the concerns of this book. C h a p t e r O n e Political Choices and Valence Politics 16 P o l i t i ca l Ch o i ce s a n d Va l e n ce P o l i t i c s The outcome of some national elections may seem to many voters and observ- ers to be “cut and dried.” However, uncertainty, anticipation, and anxiety are the hallmarks of most national election campaigns. Consider, for example, the 2004 American and

? Table 3.1. Ethnic Minorities in the United Kingdom, 2001 and 2011 Census for England and Wales (%) 2001 2011 Asian Indian 2.0 2.5 Pakistani 1.4 2.0 Bangladeshi 0.5 0.8 Chinesea 0.4 0.7 Other Asian 0.5 1.5 Total 4.8 7.5 Black African 0.9 1.8 Caribbean 1.1 1.1 Other black 0.2 0.5 Total 2.2 3.4 Mixed/multiple ethnic groups 1.4 2.2 Other ethnic groups 0.4 1.0 Total 8.8 14.1 Source: UK ONS (2001, 2011). a Comparability issues exist among these ethnic groups for the 2001 and 2011 census. British Citizens like Any Others? 65 Voter Registration and Turnout among Ethnic

Martin’s in Edmonton-Beverly-Clareview and David Eggen’s in Edmonton-Calder. The NDP were forced back to their tradi- tional two seats in Edmonton: Mason held on to Edmonton-Highlands, while rookie candidate Rachel Notley took Edmonton-Strathcona. The Wildrose Alliance party lost the one seat it held when Hinman lost his in Cardston-Taber-Warner. Another noteworthy feature of the results on election night was the dismally low voter turnout. Only 40.6 per cent of registered voters PREMIER STELMACH’S MANDATE / 141 bothered to show up at the polls to cast a

independence. The majority of French-speaking voters did not support the unequivocally federalist parties. In the Montreal region, 296 Ideologies in Quebec more than 60 per cent of the francophone vote went to the Parti Que- becois. Another important and revealing indicator of this change in the political behaviour of French Quebec was its rejection of the conservative, anti- union social policies of the Liberals. The old conditioning, the colonized reflex, did not work; we seemed to have a more mature electorate. And significantly, the voter turnout of 85.2 per cent

not the last time." ANTOlNEIIE DE l!IRECOURT. 197 cc Never mind that, l\Ir. Secretary, but attend to your duties," was the peremptory reply. "Invited, Evelyn shall be. He jomed us once before." " Yes, on which memorable occasion he lost the splendid bays he had brought with him from England, a reminiscence scarcely calculated to induce him to favor us with his society a second time. And be- sides, of what use w.ill he be, now that he has neithel" horses nor turn-out ? " "Nonsense, .Major Sternficld," sharply retorted his hostess. " You know as well as I

public-sector employees are substantially more likely to turn out to vote; the differences in turnout rates for government employees and other citizens range from 9% to 22% across years and races for different offices. This finding of higher turnout rates for public-sector employees is reinforced by Corey and Garand (2002), who find that public-sector employees are significantly more likely to turn out during the 1996 American national elections. Garand, Parkhurst, and Seoud (1991a) also find that bureaucrats are significantly more likely to vote for Dem