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acreage Democracy in Oxford County Elections 169 was 68 per cent of Oxford County lands in 1871, up from 57 per cent in 1861. Farm occupiers in Oxford increasingly were owners (the tenancy rate dropped from 39% in 1848 to 17% in 1871). A growing proportion of the county’s population was urban; Ingersoll and Woodstock held 17 per cent of its population in 1871, up from 13 per cent a decade earlier. Acclamations and low turnouts of electors are negative for democra- cy, which benefits from competitive elections and voting as a democratic exercise. From this

explosive new issues and the realignment of parties. This chapter revisits the 1851 Oxford general election. It opens with the setting – the electoral process, the electorate, the voter turnout, the candidates, and the local issues: railway politics, radical democ- racy, and establishment religion. Then, through an analysis of voters, it investigates why Hincks – the incumbent, the province’s co-premier in the Hincks-Morin administration (1851–54), but also a non-resident – prevailed over Vansittart – the eldest son of the late Vice-Admiral 64 Elections in Oxford

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-Meeting. E. S. Shrapnel 297 Dentón Massey's York Bible Class 297 Stoney Lake in the Fifties Edward Caddy 304 Prowse's Hotel, Muskoka Lakes 304 Cataraqui (Kingston) in 1783 Ensign J. Peachey 305 Fall of Montmorencie in Winter George Heriot 305 Menagerie Advertisement, 1840 314 Grand Military Steeplechase, 1843 Lady Alexander 315 xl LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS FACINO PAO* Turn-out of the 43rd Light Infantry 315 Broadway and Park Row, New York, 1837 W. H. Bartlett 322 The Stock Exchange, London, 1840 J. Gilbert 322 Mr. and Mrs. Disraeli's Assembly, 1868 323 Fancy Dress Ball in

agonizing late- season runs for first place against the Red Sox and Yankees. Walking the streets of Edinburgh or London in those days before the Internet or Sky TV, I would scan the agate in the sports section of the International Herald-Tribune for the outcomes of games two days old, my heart rising and sinking as if confronted by wartime dispatches from the front. It's hard to square those days, even the city-wide enthusiasm of the early nineties, with the apathetic turnout at today's Jays games in the dim, echoey SkyDome. There is no doubt it is an impressive feat of

political balance until this situation was changed . The inability of the Liberals to mount a full-scale attack in the province did not prevent a number of interesting contests for the seats at stake. Of the twenty-one seats (two more than in the 1867 election), six went by acclamation, as compared with four in 1867. One of them was Digby, where Vail tried to create opposition to A.W. Savary, but the latter was able to have both of his opponents disqualified. 29 In the counties where there were contests, the voter turnout was approximately the same as in 1867

turnout of electors in Woodstock, where he was popular. As calculated from published sta- tistics, 72 per cent of electors in the townships and 99 per cent of elec- tors in St Andrew’s Ward went to the polls, compared with 41 per cent in Woodstock’s four Tory-leaning wards. As discussed below, however, North Oxford and South Oxford, 1860–1866 113 the elector turnout statistics for Woodstock are tricky to interpret, given that the number of electors surpassed the town’s enumerated adult male population. The 1862 North Oxford By-election: McDougall Acclaimed In May

the Nineteenth Amendment/ Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 16,1 (Summer 1985), 52. 64 Nancy Cott, The Grounding of Modern Feminism (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987), 104-5. 65 Russell, 'Is Woman Suffrage a Failure?' Century, March 1924, 724-30. See also Estelle B. Freedman, 'The New Woman: Changing Views of Women in the 1920s,' Journal of American History, 61, 2 (Sept. 1974), 372-5. For later works citing the Merriam-Gosnell study and Illinois turnout figures as proof of female voter apathy, see Gerald M. Pomper, Voters' Choice: Varieties of Ameri- can

an eligible forty-four thousand women voted, a substantial turnout given the popular prejudice against women's active involvement in politics. Of these 84.7 per cent favoured prohibition, compared to only 64.2 per cent of the men. Their sup- port for prohibition confirmed the women's worth in the eyes of the male prohibitionists.14 The plebiscite also roused the ire of Ontario's married women, who were not allowed a vote simply by virtue of their marriage. The contest, according to May R. Thornley of the Ontario WCTU, proved an 'eye-opener' to hundreds of voteless

.A. thesis, University of Western Ontario, 1947. Campbell, Angus, et al. The American Voter. New York: Wiley, 1960. Campbell, Gail G. ‘Voters and Non-voters: Voter Turnout in the Nineteenth Century – Southwestern Ontario as a Case Study.’ Social Science History 11/2 (1987): 187–210. Campey, Lucille H. An Unstoppable Force: The Scottish Exodus to Canada. To- ronto: Natural Heritage Books, 2008. The Canadian Biographical Dictionary and Portrait Gallery of Eminent and Self- Made Men. Ontario volume. Chicago: American Biographical Publishing Co., 1880. Cannadine, David. The

down to the absolute essentials, sold for as little as $290 for the roadster model. Before the Model T was discontinued in 1928, he had made fifteen million of them. Canada's motor industry had its beginnings in 1904 when a group A D V E N T O F T H E A U T O M O B I L E 145 Mass production placed the automobile within popular reach and changed Canada's travelling habits. This early assembly line is at the Russell Motor Company plant in Toronto. 146 T H E S T O R Y O F C A N A D I A N R O A D S A stylish turnout of 1910. Inspired by such a scene, Percy