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, economic, political, and cul- tural indicators, such as average rainfall, life expectancy, GDP, voter turnout, 288 Appendix and literacy rate. But, of course, it is best if such empirical values can be plugged into theoretical formulas such as law-statements, for in this case one can hope to explain and predict the facts in question. Every scientific theory refers to concrete things of some kind or kinds. And every such theory, whether general such as Maxwell’s electrodynamics or specific such as a model of a circular antenna, involves a finite number of state functions

Height of thermometric column Current intensity Deviation of ammeter pointer Acidity pH Brain activity Glucose consumption Thought Linguistic expression Hatred Pupil contraction Primate sociality Grooming time Welfare Longevity Height Nutrition Economic activity GDP Income inequality Gini index Political participation Voter turnout 184 Chasing Reality 1 General theory & Subsidiary hypotheses Theoretical model 2 Theoretical model & Indicator(s) Testable prediction(s) 3 New empirical data obtained by observation or experiment 4 Confrontation of predictions with

about 3 per cent of the citizen population). Again, the result in the 1948 Presidential campaign of Mr. Thomas Dewey was almost certainly reached, not by the turn-out of pro-Truman voters—eight years on, Mr. Truman attracted fewer voters than Wendell Willkie attracted in 1940, although Willkie was defeated—but by the last-minute decision of thousands of Republican voters not to vote. The failure of some predictions in the polls at this time was in part due, not to inaccuracy of statistics about the intentions of voters, if they voted, but inadequacy of check about

, p. 4; Robert Owen, Letter to the Editor (14 Apr., 1834), ibid., 15 Apr., 1834, p. 3; Owen, Letter to the Editor (15 Apr., 1834), ibid., 18 Apr., 1834, p. 7; Leading Article on the Strike at Derby, ibid., p. 5 ] [*Mill may be referring to Edward Strutt (Lord Belper), with whom he was closely acquainted.] NOTES ON T H E NEWSPAPERS 211 of wages has been demanded; that the turn-out was solely by the masters; and that the "printed tariff of wages, and list of other conditions," which the Times speaks of, never existed as an act of the Union, nor, to his