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, economic, political, and cul- tural indicators, such as average rainfall, life expectancy, GDP, voter turnout, 288 Appendix and literacy rate. But, of course, it is best if such empirical values can be plugged into theoretical formulas such as law-statements, for in this case one can hope to explain and predict the facts in question. Every scientific theory refers to concrete things of some kind or kinds. And every such theory, whether general such as Maxwell’s electrodynamics or specific such as a model of a circular antenna, involves a finite number of state functions

Height of thermometric column Current intensity Deviation of ammeter pointer Acidity pH Brain activity Glucose consumption Thought Linguistic expression Hatred Pupil contraction Primate sociality Grooming time Welfare Longevity Height Nutrition Economic activity GDP Income inequality Gini index Political participation Voter turnout 184 Chasing Reality 1 General theory & Subsidiary hypotheses Theoretical model 2 Theoretical model & Indicator(s) Testable prediction(s) 3 New empirical data obtained by observation or experiment 4 Confrontation of predictions with