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reflected in their divided deci- sions.1 In summary, the evidence that the political preferences of the justices have some influence on their voting choices seems to be ex- tremely well established. The current study has built on this earlier work to examine the nature of the cleavages among the justices and to explore whether they have changed over time. The finding here is that both the substantial varia- tion among the justices in multiple issue areas, and the relatively high consistency for most justices from one time period to the next, suggest that divisions on the

of the Court. Before the Charter, party, region, and religion were all significantly related to the justices’ voting choices. Liberal appointees were much more likely than Con- servative ones to support rights claims. Similarly, Catholics gave more support to rights claims than did Protestants. And finally, just as in criminal cases, justices from Quebec in the pre-Charter era stood out as more hostile to rights claims than justices from other regions. But in the post-Charter era these cleavages have largely disappeared. There are no differences in voting on civil