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defence debates to realign Japanese electoral politics, with attention to how other salient issues influence vote choice. Issue Evolution and Electoral Politics 101 The Demise of Security and Defence? In the aftermath of World War Two, the U.S. Occupation encouraged peace activism as a symbolic rejection of a political culture antithetical to democracy. From 1960 through the mid-1970s, both U.S. and LDP elites sought to deflect public attention from security and defence issues that were so divisive that they threatened to lengthen Japan’s democratic transition and

Party of Japan; Japan Socialist Party security policy: and vote choice, 34, 111–15; as main line of cleav- age in 1955 system, 28, 101, 205; declining salience after end of Cold War, 30 –1; party views on, 7, 19 –20, 36, 38, 40; re-emergence as a salient cleavage between par- ties, 100, 102– 4, 109 –11, 115 Security Treaty Crisis, 19, 205 Self-Defense Forces, 19, 87, 100 –2, 104 – 6, 108, 111–12 Shinseitou, 5, 14, 33, 64, 103 Shintou Sakigake. See Sakigake shitamachi areas, 75, 93 Shoukou Chuukin Bank, 168–9, 170 shuntou (spring offensive), 180 –1 small

. Makihara, Izuru. 2005. ‘Sengo seiji no soukessan’ ga mamonaku owaru: Rekishi kara mita keizai zaisei shimon kaigi to sono shouraizou.’ Ronza (August): 53–62. Martin, Sherry L. 2008a. ‘Gender, Vote Choice, and the Evolving Security and Defense Debates in Japanese Politics.’ Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, Weatherhead Center for International Affairs, Program on U.S.- Japan Relations. – 2008b. ‘Japanese Political Attitudes Against an Evolving Political Landscape.’ In Japan’s Political Mess: Abe Failed, Can Fukuda Do Better?, edited by Mark Mohr. Washington, DC