, it also relies on the use of words (a quali-
tative orientation) to make the correct interpretation of the results.
Similarly, qualitative methods often rely on quantitative information to
make a correct interpretation. In short, rather than being independent
approaches to the use of technology, the two are complementary meth-
odologies that support and enhance one another.1
A Brief History of Political Research Methods
Most of the research on the votingbehavior of citizens has focused on
investigative studies carried out in various social science fields.2 The
in the United Nations or the GA TT . Certainly, an analysis of the votingbehaviour of the European states in the United Nations shows a growing
trend to uniformity. '4 (The main dissident in recent years has been Greece .)
Quite probably , as European co-ordination on internal affairs grows in
importance, dissident votes on foreign affairs will entail increasing in-
ternal political costs . The energy which increasing internal co-ordination
on economic and social issues demands makes it less worthwhile to create
political tensions on non
political parties observe, one of the most important being that the
political party in power permits its rivals to exist. The two-party system
is a functionally appropriate way of mediating the "conservative" and
"progressive" social forces.
In his discussion of right and left in American politics Parsons argues
that the focus of the American right is the organization of the free
2Talcott Parsons, " 'Voting* and the Equilibrium of the American Political
System," in E. Burdick and A. J. Brodbeck, American VotingBehavior (Glencoe,
111., 1959), 80ff.
and older (p < 0.01).
19 Based on male-female differences in the percentage who “strongly
agree” with a value statement (p < 0.01).
20 See Inglehart, R., & Norris, P. (2000). The developmental theory of the
gender gap: Women’s and men’s votingbehavior in global perspective.
International Political Science Review 21 (4): 441–63; Soroka, S., Cutler,
F., Stolle, D., & Fournier, P. (June–July 2011). Capturing change
(and stability) in the 2011 campaign. Policy Options, pp. 70–7.
21 Based on a poll of 3,005 adults, February 2015.
22 Gray, J. (2004). Men
electioneering tactics that can be used to
win over customers in any marketplace. For example, Obama redefined
how to go about identifying who your potential customers are. Voters
who had not cast a ballot previous to the 2012 U.S. presidential election
were convinced to do so. At the same time, Obama used innovative
methods to encourage repeat votingbehavior among supporters from
2008 – some of them reluctant. All types of organizations are always
trying to find new customers and at the same time hold onto those they
already have. The Obama operatives
-room wheeler and
dealer upon whom rested the responsibility for delivering the requisite
finances and votes come election time. It also meant, however, that he
was dogged by allegations that he achieved these ends only because he
used his position as minister to threaten resource contractors in order to
84 The Conservatives, 1905–19
influence their votingbehaviour. Ferguson was renowned for the same
penchant. Peter Oliver, his biographer, notes that he had begun honing
his skills in this area long before he arrived in the Ontario Legislature.
For Hearst’s part, he