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, it also relies on the use of words (a quali- tative orientation) to make the correct interpretation of the results. Similarly, qualitative methods often rely on quantitative information to make a correct interpretation. In short, rather than being independent approaches to the use of technology, the two are complementary meth- odologies that support and enhance one another.1 A Brief History of Political Research Methods Most of the research on the voting behavior of citizens has focused on investigative studies carried out in various social science fields.2 The

widely debated in the United Nations or the GA TT . Certainly, an analysis of the voting behaviour of the European states in the United Nations shows a growing trend to uniformity. '4 (The main dissident in recent years has been Greece .) Quite probably , as European co-ordination on internal affairs grows in importance, dissident votes on foreign affairs will entail increasing in- ternal political costs . The energy which increasing internal co-ordination on economic and social issues demands makes it less worthwhile to create political tensions on non

conventions which political parties observe, one of the most important being that the political party in power permits its rivals to exist. The two-party system is a functionally appropriate way of mediating the "conservative" and "progressive" social forces. In his discussion of right and left in American politics Parsons argues that the focus of the American right is the organization of the free 2Talcott Parsons, " 'Voting* and the Equilibrium of the American Political System," in E. Burdick and A. J. Brodbeck, American Voting Behavior (Glencoe, 111., 1959), 80ff. 368 The

and older (p < 0.01). 19 Based on male-female differences in the percentage who “strongly agree” with a value statement (p < 0.01). 20 See Inglehart, R., & Norris, P. (2000). The developmental theory of the gender gap: Women’s and men’s voting behavior in global perspective. International Political Science Review 21 (4): 441–63; Soroka, S., Cutler, F., Stolle, D., & Fournier, P. (June–July 2011). Capturing change (and stability) in the 2011 campaign. Policy Options, pp. 70–7. 21 Based on a poll of 3,005 adults, February 2015. 22 Gray, J. (2004). Men

electioneering tactics that can be used to win over customers in any marketplace. For example, Obama redefined Introduction 13 how to go about identifying who your potential customers are. Voters who had not cast a ballot previous to the 2012 U.S. presidential election were convinced to do so. At the same time, Obama used innovative methods to encourage repeat voting behavior among supporters from 2008 – some of them reluctant. All types of organizations are always trying to find new customers and at the same time hold onto those they already have. The Obama operatives

-room wheeler and dealer upon whom rested the responsibility for delivering the requisite finances and votes come election time. It also meant, however, that he was dogged by allegations that he achieved these ends only because he used his position as minister to threaten resource contractors in order to 84 The Conservatives, 1905–19 influence their voting behaviour. Ferguson was renowned for the same penchant. Peter Oliver, his biographer, notes that he had begun honing his skills in this area long before he arrived in the Ontario Legislature. For Hearst’s part, he