Canadian Mutual Fire Insurance Company and a director
of the Canada West Farmers' Mutual and Stock Insurance Com-
pany. On the government side, in fact, sat a fair cross-section of the
men prominent in the Ontario economic community of 1872.
Blake was on his way, too, to building a party representative of
the main ethnic groups in the province. Late nineteenth-century
votingbehaviour was to a great extent traditional, especially in rural
Ontario, where there were many discrete communities of a markedly
homogeneous ethno-religious character. In these, party loyalties had
abolished because of their protection in the BNA Act.
76 Whitney Papers, Dr Neil MacNish, Cornwall, to Whitney, n February 1895;
Meredith to Whitney, 27 April 1895
77 E.g., John Wilson, The Ontario Political Culture,' in Donald C. MacDonald,
éd., Government and Politics of Ontario (Toronto 1975), 229; R.J. Drum-
mond, 'VotingBehaviour: The Blueing of Ontario,' in ibid., 298
78 Globe, 18 January 1895. Also published as a pamphlet: Mowat, Ostracism of
Roman Catholics; The Legislation and Administration of Public Affairs, i8j2
to j8c4; The Finances (n.p. ). The
, according to
English. Political historians' loss of esteem among fellow historians was
soon reflected everywhere and reverberated even in the high schools.
Moreover, the close ties once linking Canadian historians and political
scientists withered as political scientists turned away from political
theory and historical analyses to votingbehaviour and other kinds of
Kenneth Dewar (December 1991) employed new trends in cultural
history to examine narrative structures in historical writing - in particu-
lar, in the work of Donald Creighton. He
threatened the structure of Canadian political parties. But they did not over-
whelm it. The tidal wave came later with the war.
Politics and Political Culture 49
PARTIES AND VOTERS
So much for the level of political events which, in turn, affect party organi-
zation and individual votingbehaviour. In a two-party system where the two
parties are relatively closely balanced, independents play an important role.
Research into votingbehaviour has shown independents to be better in-
formed than those who are unflinching adherents of a single party. In pre-
sociologist, if reliance is placed upon only
those facts which come to be reported by the historian. What this
288 The Developing Canadian Community
can mean is the building up of a body of sociological generalizations
on the basis of comparison when what is being compared is not
Efforts to examine over a period of time reaching back into
history the relation of social class to votingbehaviour afford an
example of the hazards involved in this type of comparative soci-
ological analysis. Here the sociologist approaches his task with a
fairly good idea of
served as secretary from 1877 to 1880.
An issue which had a much more controversial disciplinary dimension
was that of votingbehaviour. The Orangeman's oath, while pledging
loyalty to the monarchy, laws, and constitution of the country, did not
involve any obligation to vote for a specific political party or candidate.
Nevertheless, it was generally assumed that the defence of the public
good required the support of solidly protestant candidates. Some lodges
attempted to direct and control votingbehaviour. For example, LOL 137,
Toronto, passed a resolution
1861.’ Social History / Histoire sociale 7 (1974): 355–65.
– Hopeful Travellers: Families, Land, and Social Change in Mid-Victorian Peel
County, Canada West. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1981.
Gagan, D.P., P.J. George, and E.H. Oksanen. ‘Ontario Members of Parliament:
Determinants of their VotingBehavior in Canada’s First Parliament, 1867–
1872.’ Social Science History 9/2 (1985): 185–98.
Garlock, Jonathan. Guide to the Local Assemblies of the Knights of Labor. Westport,
Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1982.
Garner, John. The Franchise and Politics in
McGee, D'Arcy 48
McGillivray, Edward 91
Mclnnes, Donald 83, 115, 121, 166,
167, 181, 191; American competition
103; Canada Iron and Steel Company
195; cotton industry 89, 90;
protectionism in 1872 83; tariff of
1879 192; views on business/
government relations 166; working-
class votingbehaviour 171
Mackenzie, Alexander 137-8, 144, 145,
148, 151, 152, 157, 174, 176, 199;
Department of Public Works 134;
free-trade attitude 127-8, 151, 152;
lobbying 156, 191; public works
expenditures 138; revenue 133; tariffs
141, 142. See also Liberal party
Mackenzie, William Lyon
Robert Alford's findings for nine public opinion
surveys conducted in Canada, in which "the differences between
the religions within similar strata were consistently larger than the
differences between classes within the same religion." 11
11 Grace Anderson, "VotingBehaviour and the Ethnic-Religious Variable: A
Study of a Federal Election in Hamilton, Ontario," The Canadian Journal of
Economics and Political Science, XXXII, no. 1 (Feb. 1966), p. 37; Lynn
MacDonald, "Religion and Voting: A Study of the 1968 Canadian Federal
Election in Ontario," Canadian Review