, according to
English. Political historians' loss of esteem among fellow historians was
soon reflected everywhere and reverberated even in the high schools.
Moreover, the close ties once linking Canadian historians and political
scientists withered as political scientists turned away from political
theory and historical analyses to votingbehaviour and other kinds of
Kenneth Dewar (December 1991) employed new trends in cultural
history to examine narrative structures in historical writing - in particu-
lar, in the work of Donald Creighton. He
threatened the structure of Canadian political parties. But they did not over-
whelm it. The tidal wave came later with the war.
Politics and Political Culture 49
PARTIES AND VOTERS
So much for the level of political events which, in turn, affect party organi-
zation and individual votingbehaviour. In a two-party system where the two
parties are relatively closely balanced, independents play an important role.
Research into votingbehaviour has shown independents to be better in-
formed than those who are unflinching adherents of a single party. In pre-
served as secretary from 1877 to 1880.
An issue which had a much more controversial disciplinary dimension
was that of votingbehaviour. The Orangeman's oath, while pledging
loyalty to the monarchy, laws, and constitution of the country, did not
involve any obligation to vote for a specific political party or candidate.
Nevertheless, it was generally assumed that the defence of the public
good required the support of solidly protestant candidates. Some lodges
attempted to direct and control votingbehaviour. For example, LOL 137,
Toronto, passed a resolution
1861.’ Social History / Histoire sociale 7 (1974): 355–65.
– Hopeful Travellers: Families, Land, and Social Change in Mid-Victorian Peel
County, Canada West. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1981.
Gagan, D.P., P.J. George, and E.H. Oksanen. ‘Ontario Members of Parliament:
Determinants of their VotingBehavior in Canada’s First Parliament, 1867–
1872.’ Social Science History 9/2 (1985): 185–98.
Garlock, Jonathan. Guide to the Local Assemblies of the Knights of Labor. Westport,
Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1982.
Garner, John. The Franchise and Politics in
McGee, D'Arcy 48
McGillivray, Edward 91
Mclnnes, Donald 83, 115, 121, 166,
167, 181, 191; American competition
103; Canada Iron and Steel Company
195; cotton industry 89, 90;
protectionism in 1872 83; tariff of
1879 192; views on business/
government relations 166; working-
class votingbehaviour 171
Mackenzie, Alexander 137-8, 144, 145,
148, 151, 152, 157, 174, 176, 199;
Department of Public Works 134;
free-trade attitude 127-8, 151, 152;
lobbying 156, 191; public works
expenditures 138; revenue 133; tariffs
141, 142. See also Liberal party
Mackenzie, William Lyon
Robert Alford's findings for nine public opinion
surveys conducted in Canada, in which "the differences between
the religions within similar strata were consistently larger than the
differences between classes within the same religion." 11
11 Grace Anderson, "VotingBehaviour and the Ethnic-Religious Variable: A
Study of a Federal Election in Hamilton, Ontario," The Canadian Journal of
Economics and Political Science, XXXII, no. 1 (Feb. 1966), p. 37; Lynn
MacDonald, "Religion and Voting: A Study of the 1968 Canadian Federal
Election in Ontario," Canadian Review
Papers on Canadian Politics (1972, 1973, 1975),
and by Cleavages, Parties and Values in Canada (1974), which explored the
interaction between cleavages and the party system.
Harold Clarke and others analyzed the 1974 federal election in Political
Choice in Canada (1979; abridged ed., 1980), the most extensive study of
Canadian votingbehaviour and partisanship at the time of its publication.
Absent Mandate (1984), by the same authors, a provocative analysis of votingbehaviour during the elections of 1974, 1979, and 1980, contends that elec
tions rarely give
, who served as an elected school trustee,
alderman, MLA, and MP for north Winnipeg for forty-four consecutive
years, in 1972 offered this insight into Ukrainian votingbehaviour in his
constituency: 'Both the Communists and the anti-Communists... had
their politics determined by the Russian Revolution. You were pro-
Bolshevik or anti. As time has gone along that generation of people is
disappearing. Their children, on both sides, don't care ... I would say, in
a general way, that Ukrainian people forty-five and younger take their
politics from work and not from the
support and antagonism. The institutional officers usually see that
the balance is not upset. If the relationships were seriously disrupted,
it could have widespread consequences both internally and externally.
The interdependencies that grow up in a community of single indus-
try are such as to constrain institutions, as well as individuals.
7 For a bibliography on votingbehaviour, see S. M. Lipset, P. F. Lazarsfeld,
Allan H. Barton, and Juan Linz, "The Psychology of Voting: An Analysis of
Political Behavior," in G. Lindzey, ed.,Handbook of Social
en’s suffrage would not have a detrimental effect on U.S. politics and
government. Contrary to popular wisdom, he noted in 1919, women’s
votingbehaviour was not signifi cantly different from that of men: ‘The
granting of voting rights to women in a dozen states of the Union has
not demoralized domestic life in any of them, nor, on the other hand,
has it had noticeably effective results in the way of securing these states
a priority over the others in the humanitarianism of their laws. The
chief merit of woman suffrage in these communities has been