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re-election? It draws heavily on the analysis of the determinants of voting behaviour discussed in chapter 2. 86 A theory of the expenditure budgetary process Each jurisdiction is divided into a number of ridings and in each riding there are a number of qualified voters. Under a two-party system, which we are assum- ing to exist to avoid the complexities of coalitions, these voters can adopt one of four alternative decision rules (we ignore here the interest group activities of some individuals that were discussed earlier): the indifferent voter will abstain from

all the net benefits from government, whether perceived by the voter or not, and can in- clude the pride derived from being a citizen of a country whose government gives aid to non-residents. Altruism is therefore not ruled out; it is charity moti- vated by the personal satisfaction it gives the donor. Having defined the characteristics of the principal participants he then goes on to explain voting behaviour in terms of the voter's expected net benefits from casting his vote among the alternative competing parties. In discussing the strate- gies of the political