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. ‘Linkages Between Citizens and Politicians in Democratic Polities.’ Comparative Political Studies 33 (6): 845–79. Kobayashi, Masayoshi. 2001. Minna no yuubinbunkashi: Kindai nihon wo sodateta jouhoudentatsu shisutemu. Tokyo: Nijuuni. Kohei, Shinsaku, Ichiro Miyake, and Joji Watanuki. 1991. ‘Issues and Voting Behavior.’ In The Japanese Voter, edited by Scott C. Flanagan et al. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Koizumi, Jun’ichirou. 1999. ‘Forward.’ In Yuusei mineikaron: Nihon saisei no dai­ kaikaku, edited by Koizumi Jun’ichirou and Matsuzawa Shigefumi. Tokyo: PHP

States-Japan Security Treaty had softened to the extent that its renewal did not stimulate the same level of conten- tion it had inspired only a decade before. The intensity of ideological divisiveness and activism around secu- rity and defence left an imprint on electoral politics, and these issues continued to structure voting behaviour well after they were resolved or lost salience. Public opinion under the ‘1955 System’ was split over peace versus military defence and security values. Substantively, this meant that voters were split over whether the emperor

analysis of the redistribution of the large Progressive Party vote of 1912 or to the voting behaviour of German- Americans who very often exceeded the number of Irish- Americans in high density Irish areas. How far Progressives voted with the Democrats to offset possible Irish and German defec- tions from the Democratic Party is unknown, although in any case German-Americans were traditionally more closely identi- fied with the Republican Party. What emerges from the available election data, however, is the clear impression that there was no dramatic swing away from

least as much for their personal characteristics as for their policy stances or party affiliation. It follows that the home regions of senior DPJ leaders have become solid DPJ strongholds. This is especially so in these regions’ rural areas, where one should expect personal characteristics and con- nections to shape voting behaviour most effectively. To avoid an overly expansive definition of ‘leader,’ I include only current and past heads (daihyou) of the party – Hatoyama Yukio, Kan Naoto, Maehara Seiji, Okada Katsuya, and Ozawa Ichirou – and add Hata Tsutomu