• Effect of education on own health and spouse’s health.
• Effect of education on consumer-choice efficiency, labour-market
search efficiency, adaptability to new jobs, marital choice, savings,
and attainment of desired family size.
• Effect of education on charitable giving and volunteer activity.
• Effect of schooling on social cohesion: votingbehaviour, reduced
alienation, and smaller social inequalities.
• Effect of education on reducing reliance on welfare and other social
• Effect of schooling on reduced criminal activity.
Many of the studies also find
.’ Nonetheless, most citizen-residents do not consider
programs like federal support for offi cial-languages education as very
important to their votingbehaviour in a federal election. Therefore
in fi gure 5.1, the school voice arrow to the Government of Canada
level is slender, and the resource arrows indicate a very small direct
federal contribution to elementary and secondary education. However,
if equalization payments and tax point transfers to provinces are con-
sidered, the federal government has greater infl uence on provincial
fi nances, indicated by the gray
two papers produced that year. Professor Smiley's
paper, devoted mainly to the major contributions to Canadian political
science since 1945, goes into considerable detail. He finds that most of
the contributions can be brought under three headings: 'studies of
parties and votingbehaviour, studies of the political relations between
English- and French-speaking Canadians, and interpretive studies of the
Canadian political system as such' ;9 apart from these he finds significant
work on particular public policies (for example, immigration, combines
ferentiation and Civic VotingBehaviour,' BC Studies 69-70 (Spring/Summer
1986), 97-141. In this paper Barman uses the term 'working people' rather than
'working class' because she found the former had become a self-definition by the
1930s. I have employed 'working class' because invariably those I interviewed
described themselves in that way: see the discussion below, in chapter 3. None
the less, Ethel Wilson, who had a fine ear for local speech, had two of the pro-
tagonists in 'Tuesday and Wednesday,' originally published in 1952, identify
themselves as 'working people