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. • Effect of education on own health and spouse’s health. • Effect of education on consumer-choice efficiency, labour-market search efficiency, adaptability to new jobs, marital choice, savings, and attainment of desired family size. • Effect of education on charitable giving and volunteer activity. • Effect of schooling on social cohesion: voting behaviour, reduced alienation, and smaller social inequalities. • Effect of education on reducing reliance on welfare and other social programs. • Effect of schooling on reduced criminal activity. Many of the studies also find

.’ Nonetheless, most citizen-residents do not consider programs like federal support for offi cial-languages education as very important to their voting behaviour in a federal election. Therefore in fi gure 5.1, the school voice arrow to the Government of Canada level is slender, and the resource arrows indicate a very small direct federal contribution to elementary and secondary education. However, if equalization payments and tax point transfers to provinces are con- sidered, the federal government has greater infl uence on provincial fi nances, indicated by the gray

two papers produced that year. Professor Smiley's paper, devoted mainly to the major contributions to Canadian political science since 1945, goes into considerable detail. He finds that most of the contributions can be brought under three headings: 'studies of parties and voting behaviour, studies of the political relations between English- and French-speaking Canadians, and interpretive studies of the Canadian political system as such' ;9 apart from these he finds significant work on particular public policies (for example, immigration, combines legislation


- ferentiation and Civic Voting Behaviour,' BC Studies 69-70 (Spring/Summer 1986), 97-141. In this paper Barman uses the term 'working people' rather than 'working class' because she found the former had become a self-definition by the 1930s. I have employed 'working class' because invariably those I interviewed described themselves in that way: see the discussion below, in chapter 3. None the less, Ethel Wilson, who had a fine ear for local speech, had two of the pro- tagonists in 'Tuesday and Wednesday,' originally published in 1952, identify themselves as 'working people