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- deed, they lie at the centre of various behavioural and psychological approaches to social science. Nevertheless, theories of voter turnout have largely ignored the regularity with which citizens do not behave according to the dictums of expected utility. This may not be for the better. As we show in this chapter, such anomalies help explain varia- tion in the decision to vote, an action central to the study of politics and a question central to political science (and especially the work of Blais 2000). The apparent paradox of voter turnout has been a central

In his learned synthesis of theories and evidence on voter turnout, To Vote or Not to Vote?, André Blais (2000) argues that most citizens be- lieve that voting is a civic duty or obligation. With characteristic wit, Blais likens failure to vote as a “venial sin,” a misdeed that is wrong but forgivable (92). These feelings of obligation, he argues, cause many people to vote who would otherwise abstain on the grounds that their vote has an infinitesimal chance of altering the outcome. Blais’s argu- ment is slightly different from that of Riker and Ordeshook

The Evolution of the Study of Voting and Voters
Canada and the United States
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xiv/ LIST OF TABLES XIl/2 XIl/3 XIl/4 XIl/5 XIl/6 XIl/7 XIl/8 I II Turnout and Liberal Losses 250 Turnout and Number of Candidates 251 Liberal Losses: Sitting Members and New Candidates 259 Losses Suffered by Members of the Ministry 260 Average Size of Liberal and Conservative Constituencies 263 Liberal and Conservative Margins of Victory 263 Percentage of Votes and Seats Won by the Parties 265 LIST OF CHARTS Conservative Organization, Notre Dame de Grace Liberal Organization, Oxford County 88 89

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2.1 Pairwise Correlations between Altruism and Individual-Level Characteristics 27 2.2 Dictator Game Behaviour and Political Participation 29 2.3 Comparing the Effects of Dictator Game Behaviour and Attitudes towards Helping Others 30 2.4 Dictator Game Behaviours and Turnout in a Special Election 37 2.5 Dictator Game Behaviour and Electoral, Local, and Organizational Politics 39 3.1 Ambiguity Aversion and Voter Turnout, Swedish Sample 61 3.2 Insensitivity to Sample Size and Voter Turnout, Swedish Sample 61 3.3 Discounting and Voter Turnout, Swedish

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List of Tables vii List of Figures ix Foreword xi 1 Duty and Choice: The Evolution of the Study of Voting and Voters 3 peter john loewen, daniel rubenson, and maxime héroux-legault Part I: Voter Turnout 2 Altruism, Participation, and Political Context 19 cindy d. kam, skyler j. cranmer, and james h. fowler 3 Behavioural Anomalies Explain Variation in Voter Turnout 55 christopher dawes, peter john loewen, and gabriel arsenault 4 Civic Duty and Social Pressure as Causes of Voter Turnout 68 donald p. green 5 The Preferences of Voters and Non-Voters in

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Experience 146 Vl/18 First Entry into House of Elected Liberal Candidates 147 VII/1 Marginal and Safe Seats 154 IX/I Gallup Poll Results 1956-1957 190 X/1 C.C.F. and Social Credit Candidates by Province and Region 199 Xl/1 Canadian Forces Vote 243 XIl/1 Turnout and Conservative Gains 249 xiv/ LIST OF TABLES XIl/2 XIl/3 XIl/4 XIl/5 XIl/6 XIl/7 XIl/8 I II Turnout and Liberal Losses 250 Turnout and Number of Candidates 251 Liberal Losses: Sitting Members and New Candidates 259 Losses Suffered by Members of the Ministry 260 Average Size of Liberal and

Election Tables Saskatchewan, twenty-fifth general election, 5 November 2003 No. of votes Percentage of No. of candidates Political party received popular vote elected Liberal Party 60,601 14.18 0 New Democratic Party 190,923 44.68 30 New Green Alliance 2,323 0.55 0 Progressive Conservative Party 681 0.16 0 Saskatchewan Party 168,144 39.35 28 Western Independence Party 2,615 0.61 0 Independents 1,997 0.47 0 Total 427,284a 100 58 a There were 603,645 eligible voters; voter turnout was 70.95%. Manitoba, thirty-eighth general election, 3 June 2003 No. of votes

seemingly made sense. Turnout levels in national elections were high, with very large majorities of people regularly exercising their right to vote. The idea that democracy and high rates of voting turnout are virtually synonymous was cogently expressed by Butler and Stokes (1969) some four decades ago in their path-breaking study Political Change in Britain. They observed that “blurred ideas of popular sovereignty and universal suffrage are so interwoven in prevailing concep- tions of British government that the obligation to vote becomes almost an aspect of the