. Against this background, the contribution discusses two
practical fields in which art and society interact. These consist of an overlap-
ping of art production and social movement on the one hand, and the edu-
cational mandate of art on the other. The cultural theorist Néstor García Can-
clini initially emphasizes the “aesthetic potential” of socialmovements. How-
ever, in a subsequent theoretical development, he ceases to recognize art-
works as mere products of the artistic field (Bourdieu), but instead sees them
as, “epistemological spaces, in which art and
dieser Arbeit der ausufernde und teleologisch begründete Utopiebegriff
35 Vosskamp, Wilhelm: Einleitung, in: Utopieforschung, Bd. 1, S. 3.
36 Mähl, Hans Joachim: Der poetische Staat, S. 274.
37 Braungart, Wolfgang: Die Kunst der Utopie, S. 9.
38 Besonders: Voßkamp, Wilhelm: Selbstkritik und Selbstreflexion, S. 233-243.
39 Voßkamp, Wilhelm (Hrsg.): Utopieforschung.
40 Poldervaart, Saskia: Utopian Aspekts of SocialMovements.
14 | NEUE ORTE DER UTOPIE
Ernst Blochs nicht geteilt, doch seine
between modernism and postmodernism, Amsterdam 2001
Poldervaart, Saskia: The concepts of utopianism, modernism and postmod-
ernism, community and sustainability, in: dies. u. a. (Hrsg.): Contempo-
rary Utopian Struggles. Communities between modernism and post-
modernism, Amsterdam 2001, S. 11–30
Poldervaart, Saskia: Utopian Aspects of SocialMovements in Postmodern
Times: Some Examples of DIY Politics in the Netherlands, in: Lyman
Tower Sargent (Hrsg.): Utopian Studies, Journal of The Society for
Utopian Studies, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2001, S. 143–163
.219). He also links them to the socialmovements of the
1960’s against traditional values of “patriarchy, the domination and control
of nature, unlimited economic growth and material consumption” (ibid.; see
39 Relatively similar political positioning can be found among some other systems
thinkers (e.g. Laszlo) and thinkers of complexity (e.g. Morin).
132 | ART AND SUSTAINABILITY
also Castells 1997). Looking at the case of the anti-MAI campaign40, he ob-
“Whereas the treaty was discussed in
-complex, any claim to predict, control or manipulate
large-scale socialmovements into a specific direction (however high the
leverage point one works on), should be considered as preposterous.
Conventions, complexity and communities of practice
The analysis of conventions brings now back to the foreground, the specific
complexity of human social reality, with its duality of formal and informal
structures, which was already evoked after Capra in chapter 2, section 3 as a
duality of design and evolution.14 By looking at the complex evolutionary