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-to-be and the potentialities not-to be. The salvation and redemption themes were connected and assembled as the social and psychological sciences were given institutional ‘homes’ in the univer- sities in American Progressivism at the turn of the 20th century. The sciences, if I use a contemporary language, provided useful, practical knowledge that served both the state and civil society. The university and its disciplines were in ‘service to the democratic ideal’ (see, e.g., McCarthy, 1912). William Rainey Harper (1905), the first President of the new University of

, Graham: »Cafés, Third Places, and the Enabling Sector of Civil Society«, in: Aksel Tjora/ders. (Hg.): Café Society, New York 2013, S. 67-86. Schaffrick, Matthias/Willand, Marcus: »Autorschaft im 21. Jahrhundert. Bestandsauf- nahme und Positionsbestimmung«, in: dies. (Hg.): Theorien und Praktiken der Autor- schaft, Berlin/Boston 2014, S. 3-150. Scharnowski, Susanne: »›Berlin ist schön, Berlin ist groß.‹ Feuilletonistische Blicke auf Berlin: Alfred Kerr, RobertWalser, Joseph Roth und Bernard von Brentano«, in: Mat- thias Harder/Almut Hille (Hg.):Weltfabrik Berlin. Eine

gemeinte Weise zu einem »beast of its own«322 entwickelt habe, welches er nur noch als außen- stehender ›Dienstleister‹ betreut und ›füttert‹ »to the betterment of the human com- munity«.323 Diese moralisch anerkennenswerte Intention, ein Kaffeehaus zu eröffnen 319 Jan-Christoph Kitzler: »Schwieriges Terrain – Kaffeehauskette Starbucks will Italien erobern«, in: WDR 5Morgenecho, 12.01.2016. 320 Graham Scambler: »Cafés, Third Places, and the Enabling Sector of Civil Society«, in: Aksel Tjora/ders. (Hg.): Café Society, New York 2013, S. 67-86, S. 67. 321 Richard Futrell

Table of Contents Acknowledgements | 7 1. Introduction: The Nature of Myth and Mythological Resignification | 9 THE PUSHING OF HORIZONS 2. Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter and the Opening of Fences | 33 2.1 From Crime to Heresy: The New England Witch as Transgressor | 34 2.2 Puritan Fathers and the Treatment of Dissent | 42 2.3 The Order of Roses | 62 2.4 The Recuperation of Mercy and the 3Foundations of Civil Society | 81 3. Karl Gutzkow’s Wally, die Zweiflerin and the Despair of Artificiality | 105 3.1 Germanic Myths and

societal picture, I rely on Jean Cohen and Andrew Arato and their study Civil Society and Political Theory (1992). Their approaches to the civic realm will be of crucial importance, as they illuminate the conditions that govern literature’s influence on politics. Cohen and Arato imagine a political community in three categories: a civil, po- litical, and economic society (ix). It is with the first and second that this study is concerned, especially with their reciprocal influence. Civil society is a “sphere of social interaction between economy and the state

, Jean, and Andrew Arato. Civil Society and Political Theory. London: MIT Press, 1992. Colacurcio, Michael J. “Footsteps of Ann Hutchinson: The Context of The Scarlet Letter.” Nathaniel Hawthorne: The Scarlet Letter and Other Writings. Leland S. Person, ed. New York: Norton, 2005. Denkler, Horst. “Zwischen Julirevolution (1830) und Märzrevolution (1848/49).” Geschichte der politischen Lyrik in Deutschland. Walter Hinderer, ed. Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann, 2007. Eke, Norbert. Einführung in die Literatur des Vormärz. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche

, Michael: Towards a Global Civil Society. Providence-Oxford 1995. Geschichte allgemein Ginsborg, Paul: Storia d’Italia dal dopoguerra ad oggi. Società e politica 1943-1988, Turin: Einaudi 1989 Ginsborg, Paul: L’Italia del tempo presente. Famiglia, società civile, Stato. 1980-1996. Turin: Einaudi 1998 Lanaro, S.: Storia dell’Italia repubblicana. Dalla fine della guerra agli anni Novanta, Padova 1992 Lill, Rudolf: Geschichte Italiens in der Neuzeit, Darmstadt: Wiss. Buchge- sellschaft 1986 Mack Smith, Denis: Storia d’Italia. 1861/1969, Rom-Bari: Laterza 1987

amount of “letting go” or “post-racial” utopi- anism will slip the yoke (Hartman, Scenes 6). Equating the WASP racial discourses of contemporary blackness with the legitimizing racial discourses, surrounding and supporting chattel slavery—thus, stating a continuous and unchanging stra- tegic invisibilization of black humanity within U.S. civil society—Afro-Pessimism intends to separate the structural positions of American Indians, Latin Americans, Asian Americans and other ethnic groups (all presumed “junior partners” of WASP civil society: Wilderson III, The Black

’s fu- ture in a much more detailed way because the nation’s development is imagined to function organically: Mercy and justice, the black flower and the rose-bush, the Pu- ritan fathers and the Puritan dissenters offer the constitutive elements that necessi- tate a specific (democratic) future. Hester’s free sphere at Boston’s margins pre- sents the ‘seed’ of civil society which enforces the ‘growth’ of a pluralistic, bal- anced, and finally democratic polity. Similarly, the trajectory of Brown’s characters is ‘rooted’ in the original Puritan voyage and

’ pride: “A reasonable son is obedient to his father and shall eat 11 Author’s translation [N.C.]. 12 Author’s translation [N.C.]. 274 | CABASSI of the fruit of the righteous”13 (“сынъ благоразумный послушливъ отцю, и плода праведнаго снѣсть” [L.L.: 408-409]). The large number of bibli- cal quotations in the chronicle aims to highlight the duties of filial piety: e.g. taking care of the aged body and soul, and providing the old parents spiritual and moral support. As in civil society, even more so in the