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daraus resultierenden schreienden Unrechts ist die Enttäuschung und Verbitte- rung über die Grenzen der Befreiung deutlich zu spüren und das Land von sozialem Frieden nach wie vor weit entfernt: 30 SMSes of the Day. The Namibian, 31. März 2014. Henning Melber116 »The politicians must wake up to the reality that ordinary Namibians are fast losing trust in the institutions of the state, whether it is the security agencies such as police and army or education and health. Like in Orwell's Animal Farm, Namibia's democracy has become a sham. It is more a dictatorship

th century (Diego Barros Arana, Francisco Encina, Luis Galdames etc.). The consequence of the dominance of ‘minimalist narratives’ in the historiography was the diffusion of a biased interpretation in school curricula and in the Chilean State Museums (Crow 2013: 24-25). Even under Pinochet’s dictatorship, and although the regime was not known for its rhetorical carefulness, the official interpretation of the occupation was that it had been an example of ‘peaceful resolution of border conflicts’. Curiously, the military campaigns against the Mapuche have also

Otredad y de Frontera : Antro- pología y Pueblos Amazónicos«. In: No Hay País Más Diverso. Compe- ZWISCHEN AMAZONAS UND EAST RIVER 378 ndio de Antropología Peruana, hg. v. Carlos Iván Degregori, Lima, S. 235-277. Paley, Julia (2001): Marketing Democracy: Power and Social Movements in Post-Dictatorship Chile, Berkeley. Perú Ministerio de Salud (2002): Análisis de la Situación del Pueblo Shipibo Konibo, Lima. Petermann, Werner (2004): Geschichte der Ethnologie, Wuppertal. Posey, Darrel A./Dutfield, Graham (1996): Beyond Intellectual Property: To- ward

Americas after an insurrection of enslaved people), the particular postcolonial history of its neighbor-state Dominican Republic has largely been overlooked or only perceived in opposition to Haiti. Yet, the Dominican experience demonstrates a very particular insertion into modernity, which has been strongly influenced by European and US imperialism and Western political thought. Horn re- constructs how national racial discourses of Anti-Haitianism during the dictatorships of Trujillo (1930-61) and under its successor Balaguer (1966- 78; 1986-96) were shaped by the

”, formerly institutionalized in the Poro and Sande secret societies. These in- stitutions did not simply disappear during the revolutionary times but they did come under serious attack. In this context, Højbjerg states with regard to the Touré regime: “local religious practices were outlawed during this period of harsh dictatorship, when all forms of political opposition were suppressed and Guinea became isolated from the outside world” (Højbjerg, 2007: 234). Through my inves- Youth and the State in Guinea: Meandering Lives72 tigation in the field I would argue that

-29). Much of these developments also influenced participatory rights, especially for indigenous peoples, in Brazil. In her survey article on participation in Brazil, (Corn- wall, 2008) affirms that the Federal Constitution of 1988 formulated extensive par- ticipatory rights together with a detailed framework for the pursuit of social justice (Cornwall, 2008, p.35). After the end of two decades of military dictatorship, Brazil’s new participatory institutions have given rise to international attention, Cornwall states (Cornwall, 2008, p.3). Nevertheless, she characterizes

youth. Work, social change and politics in Africa, Virginia 2012. HOWARD, Philip N.: The digital origins of dictatorship and democracy. Information technology and political Islam, Oxford 2011. HOWE, Marvine: „Morocco’s democratic experience“, in: World Policy Journal, 17 (1) 2000, S. 65-70. 388 | Jugend und Gender in Marokko HOWE, Marvine: Morocco. The Islamist awakening and other challenges, Oxford [u. a.] 2005. HURRELMANN, Klaus/ ENGEL, Uwe: Psychosoziale Belastung im Jugendalter. Em- pirische Befunde zum Einfluß von Familie, Schule und Gleichaltrigengruppe

. „Introduction: Rethinking Theories of the State in an Age of Globalization.“ In The Anthropology of the State. A Reader, heraus- gegeben von Aradhana Sharma und Akhil Gupta, 1–41. Malden: Blackwell Publish- ers. Sharp, Gene. 1973.The Politics of Nonviolent Action. Bosten: Porter Sargent. 462 Klientelisierte Staatlichkeit in Konfliktregionen ———. 2003. From Dictatorship to Democracy: a conceptual framework for liberation. Bosten: Albert Einstein Institution. Shaw,Rosalind, und LarsWaldorf (Hrsg.) 2010. Localizing Transitional Justice: Interventions and Priorities after Mass

Development, Nairobi (2003), Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2003. Preliminary Report. Chande, Abdin (1998), Islam, Ulamaa and Community Development in Tanza- nia: A Case Study of Religious Currents in East Africa, Austin & Winfield. ——— (2000), »Radicalism and reform in East Africa«, in: Levtzion, Nehemia & Randall L. Pouwels (Hg.), The History of Islam in Africa, Ohio University Press, 349-369. ——— (2008), »Muslim-State Relations in East Africa under Conditions of Military and Civilian or One-Party Dictatorships«, Historia Actual Online, 17, 97

am Main 1991. 151 Vgl. u. a. Bennani-Chraïbi 1994; Kabbani/ Kothari 2005. 152 Vgl. Honwana 2012; Khalaf, Samir/ Khalaf, Roseanne Saad (Hg.): Arab youth. Social mobilisation in times of risk, London 2011. 153 Dieser Begriff ist im Zuge des „Arabischen Frühlings“ entstanden und setzt sich aus den Wörtern „arabisch“ und „Rebellion“ zusammen. 154 Vgl. Howard, Philip N.: The digital origins of dictatorship and democracy. Information technology and political Islam, Oxford 2011; vgl. Lynch, Marc: „After Egypt. The lim- its and promise of online challenges to