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Besides being an exemplary case of the impact of digitalization on activism and
citizenship, the Never Again movement further illustrates how everyday citizen-
ship practices are being transformed; today, people are more and more frequently
turning to the Internet to get informed, to communicate with others about politics,
to contact politicians, to sign petitions, and, vitally, to form socialmovements with
Many concepts have been suggested in an attempt to capture the transforma-
tions in citizenship brought about by
, leisure, playful work and laborious play.
Sports and esports
How do games and other activities become “sports”? Many sports originally
developed from physical practices of moving the human body – from movements.
From their humble beginnings in work-related practices, they have, through
standardization, organization and rationalization been turned into competitive
movements (for the participants), events for spectatorship (for a sedentary audience)
and organizations/socialmovements (for amateurs and professional practitioners,
overlaps between technical and, what I will call, educational imaginaries.
Sweden, along with the other Nordic countries, has a long tradition of
high rates of participation in liberal adult education. In one year, 72 percent of
the adult Swedish population take part in some kind of education. This is the
highest figure in the EU. Of these 72 percent, 67 percent take part in non-formal
The Ironies of Digital Cit izenship 43
adult education (Statistics Sweden 2014). Swedish liberal adult education has
historically been dominated by socialmovements, where