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private space”.1 Bourriaud links these contemporary art practices – which he describes as marked by a relational aesthetic – with the collaborative processes enabled by the internet, and the need for a physical, alive and intersubjective relation triggered by the virtual world and the detached mode of interaction that we all inhabit.2 These artists and their art create open-ended environments in which people come together to participate in a shared activity, producing different encounters. In spite of Bishop’s qualms over the real political signif- icance of this

was basically all the founders could come up with at the time. However, this raises a very interesting question: WHY was no such ex- pert involved? At this point, both the civilians and soldiers involved in the museum openly denied that a Tank Museum needed any concept at all. Their reasoning was a mixture of political and cultural reasons: During yet another height of the Cold War, the military and many local politicians, who often had been professional sol- diers before, were very suspicious of critical views of the military and war in general and of the

Building a Critical Museology in Africa A Foreword by Ciraj Rassool As we continue the work of rethinking the museum on the African continent, we are grate- ful to the museum scholars, practitioners and activists who gathered in Zurich to deliberate about the histories and cultural politics of connections and cooperative projects between museums in Africa and Europe. The publication of this collection of essays is particularly timely, in the wake of the French president Emmanuel Macron’s important call in November 2017 for the ‘temporary or permanent

walls, but rather that they themselves are producers of meaning. With its objects, contexts, texts, and visual representations, they develop “poetics” and “politics”, they construct social convictions.8 Hence, the claim to eternal truths and the universality of the knowledge of the museum crumbled as well: the self-evident premises of the museum – its apparent neutrality and objectivity, its consequential distinctions, the power of its modes of display and its mostly bourgeois, western, patriarchal and national “gestures of showing”9  – were interrogated. And

10 August 1793, marking the celebrations of the anniversary of the storming of the Tuileries Palace and the festival of the unity and indivisibility of the Republic, the newly-founded museum was one of the “riches of the nation” and repre- sented “the right of all people to this pleasure”, as Jacques Louis David put 1 | P. Sloterdijk, Museum. Hanno Loewy82 it in the national assembly.2 In the second half of the 19th century, however, there was an invocation of common cultural roots, which led to a prioritisa- tion of unity, transcendeding the political demands

about social issues and politics rooted in communities in Toronto. Toronto is one of the most diverse cities in Canada, with a population of over 2.7 million people. There is a very active cultural sector that spans the city. With a permanent collection of more than 79,000 works of art, the Art Gallery of Ontario is part of this sector, and holds a place as one of the largest and most celebrated art museums in North America. As a part of Toronto communities, the Art Gallery of Ontario has innovated policies, programming and exhibitions that are reflective of

about other terri- tories and cultural traditions. The example of Russia in particular is significant in this field. Russia is often excluded from universal histories of museums (the work of Alma Wittlin is one of the rare exceptions to this rule3). In most of their work, if discussing Russia or the Soviet Union at all, they limit their study to the role of Soviet museums fulfilling the political needs of the USSR and their ideological functions. Russia is compared to other European totalitarian coun- tries during the two world wars (Germany and Italy). The one

Museen, Bielefeld: transcript 2014, p. 63–83. Beier-de Haan, Rosmarie: Erinnerte Geschichte – Inszenierte Geschichte. Aus- stellungen und Museen in der Zweiten Moderne, Frankfurt a. M.: Suhr- kamp 2005. Benjamin, Walter: Selected Works Vol. 4, Harvard: Harvard University Press 2006. Bennett, Tony: Culture. A Reformer’s Science, London: Sage 1998. Bennett, Tony: The Birth of the Museum. History, Theory, Politics, London/ New York: Routledge 1995. Beöthy, Balázs: “Performativity”, in: Curatorial Dictionary, see http://tranzit.org/ curatorialdictionary

referring to the natural sciences is a characteristic feature of the development of the humanities during the first half of the 20th century. The Bakhtin Circle: Philosophy, Culture, and Politics. London and Sterling, VA: Pluto Press, 2002. 3 | Daniel Jacobi, “Dialogism in museums”, in: The Dialogic Museum and the Visitor Experience, in: ICOFOM Study Series (ISS), vol. 40, 2011, p. 18. http://network.icom. museum/fileadmin/user_upload/minisites/icofom/pdf/ISS%2040_ch_web2.pdf 4 | Vyacheslav V. Ivanov, “Towards a Theory of the Speech of the Other Person”, in

am Main, New York: Campus Verlag 2005 Albano, Caterina: „Displaying lives: the narrative of objects in biographical ex- hibitions“, in: Museum and Society 5(1), 2007, S. 15-28 Anderson, Gail (Hg.): Reinventing the museum. Historical and Contemporary Perspectives on the Paradigm Shift, Walnut Creek [u. a.]: Altamira Press 2004 Appadurai, Arjun; Carol A. Breckenridge: „Museums are Good to Think. Herit- age on View in India“, in: Karp, Ivan; Christine Mullen Kreamer; Steven D. Lavin (Hg.): Museum and Communities. The Politics of Public Culture, Washington