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, museums in Africa have started to play a key role in national development, education and leisure, as well as improving interactions between countries and regions through joint research and cooperation, having developed some strong relations with museums in Europe over time. African museums as custodians of heritage in the face of past and present political dynamics As one of the institutional custodians of heritage, museums in Africa have become centres of power as well as attractions. They are now knowledge banks, voices of communities’ pride in their heritage

we will certainly find many instances of artists consciously adopting, adapting, quoting, decomposing, critiquing, and even transgressing European avant-garde strategies, creating work that dramatizes the restless intellectual encounters of artists engaged in a continuously evolving project of subject formation. (Okeke- Agulu 2001: 33) This variety of artistic positions was very broad and would have been influenced by indivi- dual artistic strategies, art patrons and collectors, as well as the respective political circum- stances (Harney 2004). The artists

, Rosmarie: Erinnerte Geschichte – Inszenierte Geschichte. Aus- stellungen und Museen in der Zweiten Moderne, Frankfurt a. M.: Suhr- kamp 2005. Benjamin, Walter: »Das Kunstwerk im Zeitalter seiner technischen Reprodu- zierbarkeit«, in: ders., Illuminationen. Ausgewählte Schriften I, Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp 1977, S. 136–170. Bennett, Tony: Culture. A Reformer’s Science, London: Sage 1998. Bennett, Tony: The Birth of the Museum. History, Theory, Politics, London/ New York: Routledge 1995. Beöthy, Balázs: »Performativity«, in: Curatorial Dictionary, siehe http://tran zit

ones they considered the best. All the regional parliamentarians were persuaded to compose texts for the photos. Finally, twenty-four text/image combinations were selected, of which twelve were to be displayed in Styria and twelve in Graz at loca- tions chosen by readers (We couldn’t get permission for 2 of them in Graz and 4 in Styria; decisions in 5 cases were based on political reasons). This type of approach makes the artist into a kind of director who ensures that the course of the process is followed and his plans are carried out. Each of the double panels

institutions, such as in this case from the Uganda National Museum, is finding out how the cultural politics of representation evokes memories which lead to truth and reconciliation. The elders’ parallel functions of mediating and performing the healing actions in the mato-oput both transmitted memories to the younger people and seemed to create a positive attitude change towards peaceful co-existence. The most important elements of the museum work seemed to be creating a space for dialogue and advocating the significant cultural sites of reconciliation. This was the

. Or does the failure to sustain a relationship with communities stem from the lack of political will and vision that prevents the government from paving the way for museums and cultural heritage in the country to demonstrate their social rele- vance? In today’s global village where people are revisiting knowledge constructed in the modern, colonial and postcolonial periods, when Frantz Fanon’s (1963) seminal book, The Wretched of the Earth, is re-read with nostalgia, it is no longer possible to rely on one linear and agreed-upon (true) history. Some French

establishes that not only the architectural form of the building shall be redefined, but that it is also necessary to develop a new concept for the permanent exhibition, focused on the issues of modern military history. Fol- lowing the basic definition of military history coined by Rainer Wohlfeil in the late 1960s, “this discipline of historical science is an inquiry into armed force as an in- strument and means of politics and concerned with the problem of leadership in war and peace. It considers war not just a pure military matter, but puts it in the context of

Display of Culturally Purposeful Objects.“ In: Karp, Ivan; Lavine, Steven D. (Hrsg.) Exhibiting Cultures. The Poetics and Politics of Museum Display. Washington/ London, 33-41. Beier, Rosmarie (Hrsg.) (2000) Geschichtskultur in der Zweiten Moderne. Frankfurt am Main/ New York. Beil, Christine (2003) Der ausgestellte Krieg. Präsentationen des ersten Weltkrieges in deutschen Museen und Ausstellungen zwischen 1914 und 1939. Tübingen, (angekündigt). Belcher, Michael (1991) Exhibitions in Museums. Leicester. Benjamin, Walter (1977) Illuminationen. Frankfurt am Main

occupied Belgium twice in the course of the 20th century, as enemies is totally devoid of sense today. For the young- er generations, Germany is an ally within the European Union. In the case of the Second World War, it is difficult to limit explanations to the “daily” aspects of war and to forget about the more sensitive political aspects. That is why we offer more than traditional guided tours about the interwar period and the Second World War. Indeed, students can participate in a workshop about propa- ganda, based on political bills from times of war and times

. In: Museumskunde 66 (2001), S. 67-72. 31 Vgl. Macdonald (wie Anm. 26). 32 Vgl. Ivan Karp: Introduction: Museums and Communities: The Politics of Public Culture. In: ders., Christine M. Kreamer und Steven D. Lavine (Hg.): Museums and Communities: The Politics of Public Culture. Washington/London 1992, S. 1-18. 33 Vgl. Ivan Karp and Steven D. Lavine (Hg.): Exhibiting Cultures: the poetics and politics of museum display: Washington DC/London 1991; Sharon Macdonald. Ex- hibitions of Power and Power of Exhibitions: an introduction to the politics of dis- play