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) refrain from participating.16 This optionali- ty means, ultimately, that individuals relate to function systems as placeholders, 14 See Niklas Luhmann, “Globalization or World Society? How to conceive of modern society,” International Review of Sociology 7.1 (1997): 67. 15 See Niklas Luhmann, Social Systems, 315f. 16 Of course, one might be reminded here of what Anatole France said about the law, which “in its majestic equality, forbids the rich as well as the poor to sleep under bridg- es, to beg in the streets

globalisation theories, world society and world polity theories, look at the current waves of global connectivity not as a new material phenomenon. Cultural pluralisation is not anything new in world history but has been the rule for centuries. Colonialism, wars of conquest, mass migrations, the slave trade, world wars, and refugee movements have been pro- cesses with global dimensions for several centuries. Viewed in a world-system perspective, capitalist markets required migration across borders of states and empires (Wallerstein 1974). What is new is not so much

worldwide. At the same time, such organi- zations and associations play a pragmatic role in the rapid diffusion of common world models and scripts, for example, “instructing” nations and organizations on the application of human rights rules, educational models and so on. In sum, world society does not simply arise, rather, it is “built by agentic state and non-state actors, who (often eagerly) par- ticipate in [its] formation” (Meyer 2000: 240-242). ELAINE COBURN 242 World Culture and Education Given this vision, world polity scholars writing about

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Niemeyer (Hg.), Soziale Beziehungsgeflechte. Festschrift für Hans Winkmann zum 65. Geburtstag, Berlin: Duncker & Hum- blot, S. 77–96. Heintz, Peter (1980c): »The Study of World Society: Some Reasons Pro and Contra«. In: Hans-Henrik Holm / Erik Rudeng (Hg.), Social Science – For What? Festschrift für J. Galtung, Oslo: Norvegian University Press, S. 97–100. * Heintz, Peter (1981): »Subjektive und institutionalisierte Werte in der Gegenwartsgesellschaft«. In: Heine von Ale- mann / Hans Peter Thurn (Hg.), Soziologie in weltbürger- licher Absicht. Festschrift für René König

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Rahmen hinaus nicht behandelt. Das World-Society-Konzept der Gruppe von John W. Meyer (Stanford) ist dagegen bis jetzt in der deutschsprachigen Soziologie kaum zur Kenntnis genommen worden. Systematische Referenzen finden sich als große Ausnahme bei Niklas Luhmann (1927–1998) (1997, 1998) und nun auch bei Rudolf Stichweh (1999a, 1999b). Die- ses Defizit betrifft ebenfalls das gesamte Gebiet des Neo-In- stitutionalismus (March / Olsen 1989; Mayntz / Scharpf 1995; Powell / DiMaggio 1991a), dessen Rezeption in der Soziologie jetzt langsam einzusetzen beginnt (Hasse

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Abstracts Transnational Migrations. Post-Yugoslavian Biographies in the World Society Engaging with the ongoing dispute between proponents of transnational theories on the one hand and those advocating assimilation and integration theories on the other, the dissertation starts with a critique of recent conceptual discussions within contemporary migration studies. In order to develop a more satisfying position conciliating between the two sides involved, the author of this disserta- tion takes up a system theoretical perspective as a third point of

attention not as an an- omaly, but rather as an intrinsic element of transnational processes. Thomas 312 I JoANNA PFAFF-CZARNECKA Faist's reflections (this volume) on the overtly enthusiastic prognoses formulated by system theory scholars conceptualising the world society as of one communic- ative space, without producing empirical evidence to substantiate this claim, point in the direction of my argument. Urmila Goel's careful analysis of the In- demet (this volume) brings the discrepancy between a celebratory discourse de- ployed by users of new communicative media

Leadership (2014): A Risk-based Approach to Privacy: Improving Effectiveness in Practices. https://www. informationpolicycentre.com/uploads/5/7/1/0/57104281/white_paper_1-a_ risk_based_approach_to_privacy_improving_effectiveness_in_practice. pdf. Cohen, J. E. (2012): Configuring the Networked Self: Law, Code, and the Play of Everyday Practice. New Haven, CT/London: Yale University Press. Cohen, J. E. (2013): “What Privacy Is For.” In: Harvard Law Review 126 (7), pp. 1904–33. Cole, W. M. (2017): “World Polity of World Society? Delineating the Statist and Societal

. 2000). World War II produced major changes in these pat- terns. Most significantly, it stigmatized corporate entities – religious, familial, ethnic, and especially national. A world society emerged founded upon the ultimate rights of human individuals, bound together by common humanity and embedded in a scientized nature and rational- ized society (Meyer et al. 1997, Boli 2005). In the new post-Modern conceptual scheme, all actorhood resides finally in individualized per- sons, and its range and extent are even greater than what Modern nation- states and citizens

that they create and to show how they influ- ence, shape, create or hinder processes of society-building (Bergmann/Meier 2003: 430, my own translation). This paper contributes to the development of concepts useful for studying global complexities, i.e. the realisation of the 'World Society', by exploring emerging Internet based forms of global togetherness. By focusing on the complex interre- lations between migration movements on the one hand and the progressive 'shrinking of distances' through communication technologies on the other, I seek to uncover some of